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132 Manufacturing the Muse, pp. 37 and 39 shows a circa-1885 Estey Organ trade card depicting a parlor gathering around an Estey Organ with the company’s complex visible in the distance, as well as a circa-1880 Estey Organ promotional poster showing the Brattleboro works with smoke pouring from its chimney.

133 “The First Music Lesson” (Estey Piano Company Trade Card, c. 1885-1890), collection of the author. The rear of the card describes the Estey Piano Factory as “the most noted structure yet erected for the development of this branch of musical industry.”


Untitled Estey Piano Company Trade Card, c. 1885-1890, collection of the author.

135 “Prospective purchasers of Estey Pianos” (Estey Piano Company Trade Card, c. 1890-1895), collection of the author.

136 This trade card may be viewed at “The Estey Organ: A Virtual Museum” (accessed online at www.esteyorgan.com/piano.html). The prominence of the stretch of Southern Boulevard (now Bruckner Boulevard) near the Estey Factory around the turn of the twentieth century is reflected in the richly ornamented facades of its industrial buildings. Among those remaining are the former Mott Iron Works building (c.1883) at 2401 Third Ave- nue; the round-arched former Henry Spies Building (C.C. Buck, 1888) at 82-96 Lincoln Avenue, which once featured impressive, pyramidal corner towers; the former Haines Brothers Piano factory (Kreitler & Hebbard, 1888) at 26 Bruckner Boulevard; and the former Borden milk distribution center (1901) at 40-50 Bruckner Boulevard. Construction dates and architects for these buildings are from Harlem River Preservation Plan: Southern Section. Page 6 of the Harlem River Preservation Plan has a c.1890-1900 view of Mott Haven from the Harlem River water- front showing the Estey Factory and its clock tower, and the then-existing towers of the Spies Building. The finely detailed industrial buildings along Southern Boulevard may be compared with an extant former piano factory built between 1900 and 1912, away from major thoroughfares, at the southwest corner of Willow Avenue and 136th Street. Other than its modest pilasters and corbelled brick cornice, this building has little ornament. The approxi- mate construction date for this building was determined using the 1900 Hyde Atlas of the Borough of the Bronx, City of New York and the 1907, updated to 1912 Hyde Atlas of the Borough of the Bronx, City of New York, which shows the building to have been a piano factory in 1912.

137 The existing bridge carrying Metro-North over the Harlem River was completed in 1956, according to the “New York Area Roads, Crossings, and Exits” website (www.nycroads.com). The first railroad bridge at that location was constructed by the New York & Harlem Railroad in 1840, according to “Railroads,” Encyclopedia of New York City, p. 977.

138 An image on the “Digital Metro New York” website (accessed online at www.metro.org:8080/index.php) shows that the Estey clock tower was visible from that location. This view is now partially blocked by the Major Deegan Expressway.


Harlem River Preservation Plan: Southern Section, p. 6.

140 See, for example, the following articles in Real Estate Record & Builders’ Guide: “The Suburban Rapid Transit Company and its Future,” January 5, 1884, pp. 4-5; “Our Prophetic Department,” November 15, 1884, pp. 1148-49; “Movements Beyond the Harlem,” July 4, 1885, pp. 753-54; “Rapid Transit in North New York,” October 10, 1885, p. 1,103; and “A Good Permanent Investment,” November 21, 1885, pp. 1277-78.

141 A good historic picture of the elevated railroad structure within the Harlem River rail yards appears on p. 126 of First Elevated Railroads in Manhattan and the Bronx of the City of New York.

142 The pre-1890 photo of the factory on p. 163 of Manufacturing the Muse shows the Estey building from this an- gle, as do the two trade cards, noted above, that have illustrations of the pre-1890 factory. Other buildings in New

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