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Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Life Event Dimensions of Loss, Humiliation, Entrapment, and Danger in the Prediction of Onsets of Major Depression and Generalized Anxiety, A…

1/27/07 10:12 AM

Submitted for publication August 5, 2002; final revision received December 20, 2002; accepted January 9, 2003.

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Comment

  • Author information

  • References

This work was supported by grants MH-40828, AA-09095, AA-00236, and MH/AA/ DA-49492 from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md, and a Young Investigator Award from the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, Great Neck, NY (Dr Hettema).

We acknowledge the contribution of the Virginia Twin Registry, now part of the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR), to the ascertainment of individuals for this study. The MATR has received support from the National Institutes of Health, the Carman Trust, and the W. M. Keck Foundation (Los Angeles, Calif), John Templeton Foundation (Radnor, Pa), and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Princeton, NJ).

From the Virginia Institute for Psychiatry and Behavioral Genetics and the Departments of Psychiatry (Drs Kendler, Hettema, Gardner, and Prescott and Mr Butera) and Human Genetics (Dr Kendler), Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

REFERENCES

1. Dohrenwend BS, ed, Dohrenwend BP, ed. Stressful Life Events and Their Context. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 1984.

2. Thoits PA. Dimensions of life events that influence psychological distress: an evaluation and synthesis of the literature. In: Kaplan HB, ed. Psychosocial Stress: Trends in Theory and Research. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1983:33-102.

3. Kessler RC. The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annu Rev Psychol. 1997;48:191-214. CrossRef | ISI | MEDLINE

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  • References

4. Paykel ES. Contribution of life events to causation of psychatric illness. Psychol Med. 1978;8:245-253. ISI | MEDLINE

5. Brown GW, Harris TO. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. London, England: Tavistock; 1978.

6. Costello CG. Social factors associated with depression: a retrospective community study. Psychol Med. 1982;12:329-339. ISI | MEDLINE

7. Surtees PG, Miller PM, Ingham JG, Kreitman NB, Rennie D, Sashidharan SP. Life events and the onset of affective disorder: a longitudinal general population study. J Affect Disord. 1986;10:37-50. CrossRef | ISI |

MEDLINE

8. Bebbington PE, Sturt E, Tennant C, Hurry J. Misfortune and resilience: a community study of women. Psychol Med. 1984;14:347-363. ISI | MEDLINE

9. Kendler KS, Karkowski LM, Prescott CA. Causal relationship between stressful life events and the onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:837-841. ABSTRACT/FULL TEXT

10. Freud S. Mourning and Melancholia. In: Strachey J, ed. Complete Psychological Works. Vol 14. London, England: Hogarth Press; 1957.

11. Paykel ES, Myers JK, Dienelt MN, Klerman GL, Lindenthal JJ, Pepper MP. Life events and depression: a controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1969;21:753-760. CrossRef | ISI | MEDLINE

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    Gilbert P. Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. New York, NY: Guilford Publications; 1992.

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    Brown GW, Harris TO, Hepworth C. Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing

depression: a patient and non-patient comparison. Psychol Med. 1995;25:7-21. ISI | MEDLINE

14. Abramson L, Seligman M, Teasdale J. Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation. J Abnorm Psychol. 1978;87:49-74. CrossRef | ISI | MEDLINE

15. Finlay-Jones R, Brown GW. Types of stressful life events and the onset of anxiety and depressive

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