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identified by the applicants chosen to participate, with recognition that schools were at varying stages of academic practice development. Began to explore media and other methods to deliver the program. Interactive distance learning technology, e-mail, and Internet resources were included to establish continued connections between Penn Macy staff and the participants, as well as among the participants themselves. Developed a self-evaluation protocol that identified critical indicators of success among participating institutions, and a self-report of each school’s goal achievement. Participants submitted reports quarterly (see later) and at the end of the year. Developed a strategic plan for an ongoing PNN academic practice consultation service, with start-up piloting in 1999-2001, and for an ongoing annual Penn Macy Conference, beginning in 2001.


Each institute addressed a number of critical content areas, many based on the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing’s own experience in establishing nursing practices through the PNN. Significant content areas included:


Rationale for academic practice and its fit with the school’s and university’s missions. Identification and comprehension of synergies within participating schools to determine what kinds of practice(s) to initiate, including methods for conducting an internal and external market analysis. Questions to ask internally as practices develop, along with examples of some of the problems, including nonviability and solutions identified in the Penn environment. Role of clinician faculty in developing evidence-based practice and disease management protocols. Faculty structures already in place at Penn or that have been developed by others to address advancement issues for clinical faculty and to ensure that ongoing research is connected to practice and used to improve clinical care delivery. Importance of standing faculty “ownership” of the practices as essential to the school’s successful integration of its tripartite mission. Governance and administration issues for practice initiatives. Importance of building community-academic partnerships. Infrastructure requirements, including information systems, legal, financial, risk management, human resources, and so forth. Means for educating people within the university to build support for academic practice because such allies can provide access to resources, knowledge, and skills found in and outside the organization that are essential to practice success. Challenges of interfacing the university/school financial systems with practice systems.

Author’s final copy prior to publication. See J Prof Nurs 18(2):63-69, March-April 2002, for the copy of record. Copyright 2002, Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

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