Mixed workshop on the PAHO manual:
Introduction of PAHO training model to general practitioners and social workers.
Focus group discussion following a workshop format on the content of the manual.
Since elder abuse is a universal phenome- non, the target of the project was not to ap- ply any social, gender or ethnic discrimina- tions to the study. Certain exclusion criteria are justified, however, with the purpose of protecting participants and for the overall benefit of the study. erefore, cognitively impaired older people were excluded.
In some countries, it was difficult to find general practitioners or front-line doctors willing to participate in the focus group discussions. In this case, they were replaced by nurses, dentists and geriatricians. e age limit for participants in the focus groups for older people (65 years and older) was lowered in some settings (Singapore) according to the national definition of “older person”. “Being literate” was an additional inclusion criterion in Brazil for the focus group discussion held with older people.
e aim of the focus group discussions was
to seek the participants’ opinions on each of the 12 items by asking:
How important is this item in detecting elder abuse?
How do you like the wording of the question? Are there any words that
cause problems? What could they be replaced with?
Is there redundancy within the ques- tion?
Do you think having several issues in one question is too complicated or prob- lematic in any way?
Is the wording too long – how might it
Furthermore, participants had to choose at the end of the session the five most relevant questions to be included in the final tool.
e project coordinators identified a local
coordinator in each participating country who was in direct regular contact with Geneva. is coordinator appointed a local facilitator with a background in qualita- tive research methodology to organize and conduct the focus groups and workshops, to provide relevant background informa- tion, to analyse the data, and to prepare the final country report based on the focus group and workshop sessions. ese coun- try reports were translated into English if they were written in a language other than English. Afterwards, they were reviewed and a content analysis was performed in or- der to obtain feedback on the questions and to discover emerging themes and answers relevant to the identification of elder abuse. Derived from these discussions, the follow- ing findings for the tested questions were formulated in order to adapt the instru- ment and to make it compatible for piloting in the eight participating countries.17
A summary of each country report can be found in Annex 4.