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Guidelines for Execution

    • Survey and preliminary design of pipeline to be completed by Xai-Xai technical staff;

    • An experienced engineer to be approached to complete detailed design once development is defined; and

    • Please, refer to sketch plans and annexes for further information.

      • 5.3

        Solid Waste

      • 5.3.1

        Sites and Present Collection / Disposal Methods

At present, disposal of solid waste is not done on a systematic basis and some unsightly and unhealthy dumping at random occurs. Most of the waste is being dumped along the road near an existing quarry site and again this is not controlled and the waste is not covered. Investigation of the quarry site where material is being extracted shows it to be unsuitable for waste disposal as excavation is undertaken by removing the side of the hill leaving no space for waste disposal.

The Municipal Council of Xai-Xai sends a 5 ton flat bed truck to collect waste on Praia do Xai- Xai once a week. This truck, then, dumps the waste approximately 1 km outside of Praia do Xai- Xai on the road to Xai-Xai. There is no formal landfill site; the waste is just dumped on the side of the road going to the quarry.

The waste is not covered but some of it is burned. A large portion of the waste consists of glass and cans. A certain amount of the cans and plastic has been scavenged by villagers. It would appear that this is not being used for recycling but rather for making curios or for use as containers.

In Xai-Xai Beach each business and/or household has informally dug a small pit into which they throw their garden refuse, perishables, papers and plastic. In some cases, this is burnt and covered. Vacant land and the road reserves are also used as places to dispose of refuse.

5.3.2 Quantities

At present, the volumes are very low. It is estimated at ±60m3 per week. This is for peak periods and will probably be lower out of season when the hotel and camp site are empty. It will probably reduce to ±40m3 per week. This includes ±15m3 for the villages just outside of Xai- Xai Beach. If these are excluded the out of season volumes would probably be ±25m3.

If the 5 ton truck has a capacity of 3.5m3, then it should be doing 7 - 8 trips a week. If they modify the truck side to being 1.5m high then it would only need to do 2 -3 trips a week in off peak and 4 - 5 trips a week in season, excluding the villages.

The fact that the truck is doing only one trip a week at present shows clearly why it is necessary for people to burn and bury their waste.

In ten years time weekly quantities are expected to have reached ±200m3 per week and in a further twenty years will have grown to ±450m3 a week.


The Municipality has only got one truck. They do not have any other plant. This is a problem as they cannot open an area for people to dump or provide cover material. This is the reason why dumping is at the side of the road.

There is a contractor who has a TLB and truck, and, therefore, they should consider privatisation of collection and disposal and levy each household and business to pay for this.

Bury / Cover in Landfill Sites

With the limited budget available it is best to use the area that has already been quarried as a landfill site despite the limitations previously mentioned. From a location point of view it is a bit close to the people and the road.


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