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  • Structure planning process, among others, the carrying capacity assessment of the area and particular sites, land-use planning, development control process, etc.;

  • Linkages between the local population and tourism development, and the need for upgrading the existing settlements and planning of the new ones; and

  • Environmental sustainability principles.

Training of Transportation Engineers

The specific goal of the training was to assist in route determination, preliminary design and optimisation of road alignments of the primary and distribution network for Xai-Xai Beach. The specific issues tackled during the training were as follows:

  • Road construction adapted to the dunes morphology in order to achieve the maximum stability of dune hills;

  • Plotting of profiles, gradients and curves from survey plans at various scales;

  • Obtaining information on construction materials and in situ road conditions;

  • Applying local design standards for road geometric design, pavement design and storm water hydrology; and

  • Reporting on local drainage conditions in the dunes area – rate of absorption, rainfall intensity and duration needed for pipes and calverts.

Training of Civil Engineers: Water and Sanitation

The general goal of the training was to create an appreciation for an integrated approach to design of water reservoir storages, and waste water treatment and disposal systems which could be applied to other areas. The specific issues tackled during the training were as follows:

  • Expected water demand by local inhabitants;

  • Expected water demand within a twenty-year period, from 1998 to 2018, on the basis of preliminary land-use plan;

  • Location of reservoir storages at suitable elevations and interlinked with the inland well fields to form the network of water supply distribution for the coastal area; and

  • Selection of the appropriate waste water treatment and disposal system, i.e. a preliminary design and location requiring a system of sewers leading to the initial sea outfall disposal, and design within the adequate timeframe.

Training of Tourism Experts

The main goal of the training was to ensure a sustainable development of tourism based on the outcomes of the integrated development plan. The specific goals of the training were focused on social impacts of tourism and facilitation of tourism development.

Particular attention was paid to development of the local community to effectively take part in tourism development and to get benefits from it. A social survey based on a Questionnaire was conveyed in Xai-Xai villages in order to determine the maximum benefit from tourism development for the local population.

The issues tackled were as follows:

  • Social impacts of tourism development on the local community, both positive and negative;

  • Influx of squatter communities into designated tourism areas in search of economic opportunities and a disappointing tempo with which tourism development is managing to provide direct job opportunities; and

  • Cultural and socio-economic values which should be considered and given due importance in the framework of tourism development.


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