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The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in collaboration are implementing the project entitled “Protection and Management of the Marine and Coastal Areas in the Eastern African Region (EAF/5)”. After accomplishing the First Phase of the EAF/5 project in 1997, FAO embarked on the Second Phase of the EAF/5 project in Kenya, Zanzibar State of the United Republic of Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros and Madagascar.

The aim of the EAF/5 Second Phase project is to assist national authorities and experts in the preparation and operationalization of the Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) for pilot sites. The activities to be undertaken in relevant countries and expected outputs are: elaboration and implementation of workplans, coastal profiles, management strategies, integrated development plans, demonstration activities, and projects for a particular pilot site in each country.

The EAF/5 project should promote approaches that attempt to:

  • Address critical issues at the pilot scale through a thorough participatory process;

  • Incorporate key site specific stakeholders’ interests based on the needs and demands in each country;

  • Reduce user conflicts, and promote co-ordination of policies, and prioritise development opportunities;

  • Strengthen capacity to manage a complex coastal area ecosystem through training and implementation of integrated management tools and techniques;

  • Prepare coastal zone management strategies that promote the use of integrated approach to ICAM;

  • Develop strategies that apply new environmental technologies appropriate for coastal areas; and

  • Identify investment opportunities and priorities through development of pilot, demonstration and bankable projects.

The EAF/5 project also promotes country and site-specific project approaches in the implementation of ICAM. There are, however, issues that are common to most countries and specific sites. The following is a summary of common key issues that have been identified as key issues requiring national programmes in the region through an earlier EAF/5 preparatory phase:

  • Weak resource management exacerbated by weak institutional structures and a wave of population shift/urbanisation to coastal centres;

  • Rapid pace of desirable development that is faster than the evolution of strategies needed for management and mechanism required for effective governance;

  • Decline in marine and coastal water quality;

  • Loss of marine and coastal biodiversity; and

  • Weak policies for marine and coastal management.


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