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  • Macamwine and Chinunguine: These are villages consisting of approximately 250 houses and 1359 inhabitants and 302 houses and 1837 inhabitants, respectively. Most infrastructure and facilities are absent. The inhabitants of these settlements are extremely poor. They are located next to the main road that links Xai-Xai Beach and Cuidade do Xai-Xai. This locality affords easy access via the main road to the main employment and service areas and also to cultivatable land on the side.

Area between Xai-Xai Beach and Praia de Chongoene

Although various concessions have been issued in this area, it is still largely undeveloped. The most sensitive natural areas are to be found here. Some low quality development has taken place in the form of camping sites. Access to this piece of land is problematic as the road next to the sea is causing severe erosion of the dunes because of the removal of vegetation. This road will have to be replaced with a road set further back from the beach front.

This area falls partly within the jurisdiction of the Xai-Xai Municipality and partly within the jurisdiction of the Xai-Xai District Authorities and Gaza Province Department of Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism.

Chongoene Hotel

This is an impressive 50’s style hotel that has not been operating for years. Severe structural damage has occurred and rehabilitation will be costly. The Lodge is linked to the Xai-Xai town via a back road. It is only accessible with a four-wheel drive vehicle.

This area falls under the jurisdiction of the Xai-Xai District Authorities and Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism. Given the potential for tourism development very little development has been realised. The existing development is generally of a low quality and has done immense environmental damage.

3.2.2 Existing Plans

A major problem with the development of the area is that there are no comprehensive integrated development plans. All planning is done in an ad hoc sectoral manner aiming at short-term rewards. No attention has been given to carrying capacity, compatibility with existing development, environmental sensitivity and cost of installation of infrastructure. The result of this will be a decline in environmental quality and functioning, an increase in conflicts between the different users of the coastal zone, a reduction of resources available to those users and lowered tourism potential.

As a result of the absence of Master Plans or structure plans to guide development based on inputs from the ICAM procedure, prior to the allocation of development concessions, the following negative outcomes have resulted in the Xai-Xai Beach - Chongoene area:

  • Prime commercial tourism sites have been allocated to opportunistic investors who often lack the commitment, experience and often the financial backing to successfully implement their projects and to carry them to maturity, thus contributing to Mozambique’s desired tourism image;

  • Reputable investors feel insecure due to a lack of planning and commitment from regional authorities regarding the supply of infrastructure and services necessary to sustain upmarket tourism facilities;

  • Owners of concessions are in some cases not able to start with development due to the lack of infrastructure and primary services;

  • Owners of concessions feel insecure and are postponing development as they are often unsure as to the exact location of their sites and as to the other development planned for the area; and

  • General confusion reigns, impacting negatively on investor confidence and ultimately on tourism growth.

There is also no effective control over the quality of development and the damage that is done to the natural environment. The concession holders, who develop inside the municipal area, do


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