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Local residents could benefit from the development of tourism industry by creating job opportunities and a market for their goods. There are, however, some points of conflict:

  • The uncontrolled fishing by tourists inflict losses on local communities who are practising fishing to satisfy their subsistence needs;

  • Destruction of natural environment by agricultural practices and felling of trees for firewood lessens the attractiveness of the area for tourism;

  • exploitation of women and children by tourists; and

  • Security of tourists.

Upgrading of Existing Areas

The first step to be taken is upgrading of existing villages in order to improve living conditions of residents. It includes upgrading of services, facilities and movement routes, security of tenure improvements, subdivision of plots, and appropriate planning of land.

The process of upgrading is an incremental one depending on the means available and increasing of residents’ income. As regards services upgrading, communal service points should be created firstly and thereafter they could develop into services to each individual stand. It is, however, necessary to prepare a planning framework in order to create guidelines for new developments.

The existing areas should be upgraded following the principle of cross-subsidisation whereby tourism developments pay for the costs of bulk services making them more affordable for local residents. Facilities should also be placed in a way that they can be used by both residents and tourists. This will make them affordable for local residents and will ensure their sustainable use. A certain amount of taxes paid by tourists and developers should be channelled into the improvement of the situation of local residents, such as housing financing and education.

Planning Process The process which should be followed by physical planning is to:

  • establish a forum with the community and the local government to guide the upgrading of the area;

  • analyse the area in terms of existing situation, and to map the existing conditions and residents;

  • determine the needs and the priorities of residents, and to define technology and methodology to follow;

  • design the road structure and subdivision of lots;

  • determine the placing of public facilities;

  • design services plan;

  • develop densification and intensification strategies;

  • initiate formalisation process; and

  • to ensure funding sources through tourism taxes, international support, etc.

Table 8 below presents the expected increase of local population in the area caused by tourism development:


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