5. INFRASTRUCTURE PRELIMINARY PROJECTS
It is important to remain focussed on the purpose of development of the Xai-Xai coastal area, namely to provide a safe secure and healthy environment where development of the tourist industry can proceed. In this regard, a high standard of services for water, sewerage and waste disposal is essential. These must meet and be seen to meet international standards without any deviation. Tourism requires expensive investment by developers and they will only be attracted by a safe secure environment.
5.1 Water Supply
The aim of this report is to provide a framework for the development of a practical and workable system of water supply and waste disposal. Although variations of scale can be expected, because of different rates of growth, financial and other constraints, etc. it is important that development adheres to the framework by building reservoirs at one level, keeping sewage seepage off the lagoon by avoiding the old septic tank systems, etc.
If development will not be restricted, it will be expensive and difficult to promote it, because the water to supply is polluted, or insufficient, or at the wrong pressure; sewerage and waste disposal will also pollute; and standards for health will not be met, especially for international tourists adjacent coastal development along 11 km between Xai-Xai Beach and Chongoene. The area consists of lovely beaches and lagoons protected by reefs with heavily bushed sandhills stretching far into the hinterland. It is relatively sparsely populated with some rebuilding of houses and hotels which have been largely abandoned and demolished since the 1970s.
Following the proposals of the Physical Plan, the likely existing and future water demand to be generated, is planned to be cross examined and integrated within the IDP. This in turn will generate sewerage flows, which will have to be catered for, as well as solid waste material requiring disposal.
5.1.1 Existing System at Xai-Xai Beach
Fresh water abounds in the dense sands and is drawn through a number of existing wells both private and public. The main water supply for Xai-Xai Beach is pumped from a well on public land about 100m north-west of the old hotel in the centre of the town. The new water meter on the electric pump registered 20m3 per hour into a 75 mm galvanised steel rising main some 450m long to a reservoir on the top of the hill. The reservoir is roofed and is in operation but in a poor state of repair. It is 5m in diameter and 2m deep with a capacity of approximately 40m3.
From the reservoir the water is led to the town through a reticulation system installed in the 60’s. We requested the Engineer’s Department to investigate the condition of the reticulation by excavating and exposing the pipe, especially the fittings at bends and interconnections. Past experience has shown that galvanised fittings are likely to have corroded through in places so it was expected that the system had serious leakage problems although these would be difficult to discern from the surface as water will seep underground in the sandy soil.
The shortcomings of the existing system are as follows: