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Table 3: Intangible Assets of the New Multinational Enterprises

Intangible Asset

Description

References

Technology adaptation

Adaptation of available technology to small-scale product markets, cheap labor and/or imperfect input markets.

Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Heenan and Keegan 1979; Ferrantino 1992; Tolentino 1993

Early adoption of new technology

Implementation of new technology developed by someone else, especially in infrastructure industries such as construction, electricity or telecommunications.

Guillén 2005; UNCTAD 2006

Ethnic branding

Consumer brands with appeal to immigrant home-country communities abroad.

Lecraw 1977; Heenan and Keegan 1979; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Ferrantino 1992

Efficient production & project execution

Ability to absorb technology, combine resources and innovate from an organizational point of view in ways that reduce costs and enhance learning.

Amsden and Hikino 1994; Guillén 2000; Kock and Guillén 2001; Matthews 2006; UNCTAD 2006; Goldstein 2007

Product innovation

Incremental product improvements; specialized products for market niches.

Lall 1983; UNCTAD 2006

Institutional entrepreneurial ability

Skills or know-how needed to operate in the peculiar institutional conditions of less developed countries.

Lall 1983; Lecraw 1993; Caves 1996

Expertise in the management of acquisitions

Experience gained in the home country in the management of M&As and corporate restructuring that help to extract value from cross-border acquisitions.

Guillén 2005;

Networking skills

Ability to develop networks of cooperative relationships.

Buckley et al., 2007; Dunning, 2002; Matthews, 2006

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