Table 3: Intangible Assets of the New Multinational Enterprises
Adaptation of available technology to small-scale product markets, cheap labor and/or imperfect input markets.
Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Heenan and Keegan 1979; Ferrantino 1992; Tolentino 1993
Early adoption of new technology
Implementation of new technology developed by someone else, especially in infrastructure industries such as construction, electricity or telecommunications.
Guillén 2005; UNCTAD 2006
Consumer brands with appeal to immigrant home-country communities abroad.
Lecraw 1977; Heenan and Keegan 1979; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Ferrantino 1992
Efficient production & project execution
Ability to absorb technology, combine resources and innovate from an organizational point of view in ways that reduce costs and enhance learning.
Amsden and Hikino 1994; Guillén 2000; Kock and Guillén 2001; Matthews 2006; UNCTAD 2006; Goldstein 2007
Incremental product improvements; specialized products for market niches.
Lall 1983; UNCTAD 2006
Institutional entrepreneurial ability
Skills or know-how needed to operate in the peculiar institutional conditions of less developed countries.
Lall 1983; Lecraw 1993; Caves 1996
Expertise in the management of acquisitions
Experience gained in the home country in the management of M&As and corporate restructuring that help to extract value from cross-border acquisitions.
Ability to develop networks of cooperative relationships.
Buckley et al., 2007; Dunning, 2002; Matthews, 2006