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these include Antonio Moro (Mor), who achieved an international reputation as a court portrait painter.

By mid 16th century the number of secular paintings increased and in particular a concern over the depiction of landscape and nature developed. These interests were to evolve into the great works of landscapes, still life and genre painting of the Baroque period. This can be seen in the works of Joachim Patinir and Pieter Aerten, but the leading figures of secular art in this period was Pieter Brueghel the Elder who painted realistic reflections of Flemish life.

Pieter the Elder Bruegel Adoration of the Kings in the Snow 1567, Oskar Reinhart Collection, Winterthur

Chapter 2: Dutch and Flemish Renaissance Painting

By the middle of the 16th century the influence of Italy and the Northern Renaissance, particularly that of Prague, became much more pronounced in art from the Netherlands regions. This period begins with the work of the Antwerp Mannerists and ends with the Late Northern Mannerists.

The Antwerp Mannerists

The Antwerp Mannerists showed the first influences of the Renaissance in their work without dramatically straying from the traditions of Early Netherlandish works.

A highly original artist of this time was Hieronymus Bosch. His work is strange and full of seemingly irrational imagery. Surprisingly modern and introducing a world of dreams that seems more related to Gothic art than the Italian Renaissance, although some Venetian prints of the same period show a comparable degree of fantasy.

Late Northern Mannerists

The Late Northern Mannerists combined the inspiration of Italy and the Northern Renaissance with the local traditions celebrated by the Early Netherlandish painters. The most prominent


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