X hits on this document

PDF document

Tribal Wilderness Research Needs and - page 5 / 5





5 / 5

study if they feel that the research methods or results may not be acceptable (Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies 1997).



It is important for wilderness researchers and managers to consider the issues of race and ethnicity (Floyd 1998). When dealing with tribal wilderness areas, researchers and managers need to develop a deeper understanding of the worldview, values and priorities of aboriginal peoples regarding wilderness and wildland areas.

Scholars conducting research in these areas must adopt methods that are sensitive to the tribal members and their spiritual and cultural traditions, and to the cultural differ- ences that exist between tribal members and nontribal members. This can include how wildlife used for research are treated in the research process; how tribal wilderness users are contacted or questioned about their use of the wilderness; and the rationale for declaring some tribal wilderness areas used for traditional/spiritual purposes off limits for nontribal members.

The participants in this dialogue session offered a num- ber of research priorities and issues for discussion during the session. Some of the priorities discussed included: a better understanding of how aboriginal people define or view the concept of “wilderness”; the importance of the wildlands land base to tribal members; value and sense of place related to wildlands; recreation access of nontribal members to tribal wilderness, including the expectations of both tribal and nontribal members on use of these areas; effective tourism models where tribal members are inter- acting with visitors for recreational use of tribal wildland areas; the cultural experience desired by nontribal member wilderness users; access to sacred sites in both tribal and nontribal wilderness; and, effective interpretation and communication methods (trailhead signs) to reach both tribal and nontribal wilderness users. The research issues discussed included: language barriers between research- ers and some tribal members; how researchers can under- stand all the issues and concerns since tribes are so differ- ent and unique; who should be conducting this type of research, academics or land managers or tribal members trained in research methods; who should be funding this research, tribes or the Federal Government or foundations; how researchers can do their work and not exploit tribal communities; and how to deal with the lack of trust in the tribal community.

Any research on tribal wilderness areas must be con- ducted with respect for the cultural values and traditions of the aboriginal peoples who claim these special areas. Of primary concern is the cultural value attributed to them by tribal members. One example of that value is the ordinance that created the Mission Mountain Tribal Wilderness of the Confederated Salish-Kootenai Tribes in Montana, which states that “Wilderness has played a paramount role in shaping the character of the people and the culture of the Salish and Kootenai Tribes; it is the essence of traditional religion and has served the Indian people of these tribes...in countless ways for thousands of years” (Confederated Salish- Kootenai Tribes 1982).




Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies. 1997. Ethical principles for conduct of research in the North. Available on line: http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/~agraham/research1.htm Berg, L. 1990. Aboriginal people, aboriginal rights and protected areas: An investigation of the relationship between Nuu-chah- nulth people and Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. Unpub- lished master’s degree thesis. University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian National Aboriginal Tourism Association. 1999. For the love of nature: Nature based tourism for Aboriginal Peoples. Available on line: http://www.fnc.ca/cnata/nature.html Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel. 1995. First Nations perspec- tives relating to forest practice standards in Clayoquot Sound. Report # 3. Victoria, BC. Collings, P. 1997. The cultural context of wildlife management in the Canadian North. In Smith, E., McCarter, J. eds. Contested Arctic: Indigenous peoples, industrial states and the circumpolar environment. Seattle, WA: University of Washington: 13-40. Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT). 1982. Mission Mountains tribal wilderness management plan. CSKT: Wildland Recreation Department. Conti G. 1997. Research in the tribal community: Two research paradigms. Symposium on native research and scholarship. Available on line: http://nikaan.fdl.cc.mn.us/tcj/summer97 Deloria, V. 1991. Commentary: Research, Redskins and reality. American Indian Quarterly. 15: 457-468. Floyd, M.F. 1998. Getting beyond marginality and ethnicity: The challenge for race and ethnic studies in leisure research. Journal of Leisure Research. 30: 3-22. Green, P. 1993. First Nations and Inuit communities. A Guide: How to do research. Ottawa, ONT: Health Canada. Graham, A. 1997. An overview of conflicting concerns and ideas about Northern research. Available on line: wysiwyg://42http:// www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/~agraham/research1.htm Jostad, P., McAvoy, L., McDonald, D. 1996. Native American land ethics: Implications for natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources. 9: 565-581. Marker, M. 1997. Indian education in the Pacific Northwest: The missing research. Available on line: http://nikaan.fdl.cc.mn.us/ tcj/summer97 McDonald, D., McAvoy, L. 1996. In countless ways for thousands of years: Native American relationships to wildlands and other protected places. Trends. 33(4): 35-39, 48. McDonald, D., McAvoy, L. 1997. Native Americans and leisure: State of the research and future directions. Journal of Leisure Research. 29: 145-166. McDonald, T. 1995. Mission mountains tribal wilderness area of the Flathead Indian Reservation. International Journal of Wilderness. 1(1): 20-21. Mihesuah, D. 1993. Suggested guidelines for institutions with scholars who conduct research on American Indians. American Indian Culture & Research Journal. 17: 131-139. Morrison, J. 1995. Aboriginal interests. In Rummel, M. ed. Protect- ing Canada’s endangered spaces: An owners manual. Toronto, ONT: Keyporter: 18-26. Nason, J. 1997. Tribal models for controlling research. Symposium on Native research and scholarship. Available on line: http:// nikaan.fdl.cc.mn.us/tcj/summer97 Peacock, T. 1997. Issues in American Indian research: The Perspec- tive of a reservation Indian. Available on line: http://nikaan. fdl.cc.mn.us/tcj/summer97 Sanders, J. 1990. Tribal national parks on American Indian lands. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson. Stumpff, L.M. 1999. In wilderness there is life: An American Indian perspective on theory and action for wildlands. In, Watson, A.E., Aplet, G. ed. Personal, societal and ecological values of wilderness: Sixth world wilderness congress proceed- ings on research, management and allocation, Vol. II, Proc. RMRS-P-000. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Wax, M. 1991. The ethics of research in American Indian communities. American Indian Quarterly. 15: 431-456.

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-2. 2000

Document info
Document views20
Page views20
Page last viewedMon Jan 23 02:43:17 UTC 2017