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Who Conquered Whom?

Languages:

Semitic: Assyrian, Akkadian, Aramaic, Babylonian, Canaanitic, Phoenician, Syriac, Arabic, Hebrew.

Indo-European Languages:Indo-Iranian (Sanskrit, Persian), Balto-Slavic, Hellenic (Greek), Italic (French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian), Celtic, Germanic (English, Swedish, Dutch, German)

Civilizations:

Sumerian 1st civilization. Mesopotamian region. Gilgamesh.  Not semitic.  Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Umma, Lagash.  Located along Tigris and Euphrates.  Fell by 2350 BC

Akkadian (2350 – 2160)Sargon.  Mesopotamian region.  Capital at Akkad.  Semitic people.  Located above Tigris.  Fell by 2100 BC.

2100 – 1792 Gutians – from Iranian Plateau for brief period, followed by warring city-states.

Amorites or Old BabyloniansHammurabi.  Semitic speaking.  Arose from area north of Akkad in city/capital (for his empire) of Babylon.  Conquered Sumer and Akkad.  1792 BC - 1750

1750 – 1500 warring city-states

HittitesApprox 1500 BC.  Indo-European language, Origins from Russia / Turkey.  Iron. King Suppilulimas.  Capital at Hattusa in modern day Turkey.

1200 BC ? – 1000 BCunknown invaders topple Hittites / warring states

Assyrian800 – 600 BC.  Capital at Nineveh – upper valley of Tigris.  Fell to Chaldeans.  Ashurbanipal. They were most hated and when fell, Nineveh was salted.

Chaldeans(New Babylonians.  Chaldees in Old Testament).  Semitic speaking.  Conquered  and assimilated Assyrians). Nebuchadnezzar II.  Babylon – capital.  Babylonian Captivity.  Fell to Persians in 539 BC.

Phoenicians1200 – 800 BC. (also known as Siddonians) traders, sea people, alphabet, cities: Tyre, and Sidon established Carthage.  Assimilated by Chaldeans yet retained semi-autonomous status until Alexander.

Hebrews1000 – 722 BC.  Under Solomon – united.  Upon his death, divided.  Northern:  Kingdom of Israel.  Southern:  Kingdom of Judah.  By 586 – Judah fell to Assyrians.  Returned to Jerusalem under Persians.

PersianAryans came down from North (steppes of Asia), conquered Medes under the  Archaemenid family led by Cyrus and united all groups.  Major cities:  Susa, Persepolis, Ecbatana.  Empire stretches to Indus River in East.

GreeksAlexander.

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