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Table of Contents

Page Executive Summary....................................................................................................................... iii

Introduction......................................................................................................................................1 Background ................................................................................................................................1 Project Objectives ......................................................................................................................1

Summary of Previous Phase I Work................................................................................................3

Phase II Engineering Design and Analysis......................................................................................5 Customer Requirements.............................................................................................................5 Regulatory Requirements...........................................................................................................6 LPG Tank Design Development and Selection .........................................................................6 Tank Construction......................................................................................................................6 HDPE Copolymer Liner ............................................................................................................8 Composite Shell .........................................................................................................................9

Hardware..................................................................................................................................10 Filling and Vapor/Liquid Service Interface .................................................................11 Riser Construction .......................................................................................................11 Vapor Space Connection..............................................................................................12 Liquid Draw .................................................................................................................13 Gusset...........................................................................................................................13 Fluid-Level Sensing .....................................................................................................13 Pricing ..........................................................................................................................15 Cost Estimates..............................................................................................................15 Opportunities for Price Reduction ...............................................................................16

Detailed Design Conclusions...................................................................................................18 Composite Materials Compatibility...............................................................................................20 Corrosion of Appurtenances ..........................................................................................................23

Underground Environments – Corrosion Processes in Soils ...................................................24 Soil Classifications.......................................................................................................24 Soil Parameters ............................................................................................................25 Soil Conductivity .........................................................................................................26 Temperature Considerations ........................................................................................26 Oxygen Concentration .................................................................................................27 Role of Galvanic Corrosion .........................................................................................27 Role of Crevice Corrosion ...........................................................................................28 Role of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) .............................................28 Estimate of Corrosion Rates of Appurtenances in Soils..............................................28 Estimate of Atmospheric Corrosion of Appurtenances Under the Dome....................30 Aluminum ....................................................................................................................31 Copper and Brass .........................................................................................................31 Ductile Iron ..................................................................................................................32 Stainless Steel ..............................................................................................................32

Alternative Underground Propane Tank Materials, Phase II—Final Report

vii

September 2009 Battelle and Lincoln Composites

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