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Table of Contents (Continued)

Page

List of Tables

Table ES-1. Comparison of Steel, Phase II, and Potential Optimized Composite Tank Costs of

Various Volumes .......................................................................................................... v Table 1. Estimated Underground Tank Costs – Steel and Phase I Composite Design................... 3 Table 2. Service Conditions and Nominal Tank Properties............................................................ 5 Table 3. Typical Properties for the High-Density Polyethylene Copolymer.................................. 8 Table 4. Properties of 6060-T651X Aluminum Alloy.................................................................... 9 Table 5. Composite Shell Layer Architecture................................................................................. 9 Table 6. Properties of Owens-Corning 158B Type 30 Glass Roving........................................... 10 Table 7. Properties of the Lincoln-Formulated Neat Epoxy Resins ............................................ 10 Table 8. Fluid Sensing Level Options.......................................................................................... 14 Table 9. Comparison of Initial Estimated and Potential Costs After Reductions (U.S. Dollars) . 17 Table 10. Required and Observed Chemical Compositions of Commercial Propane................. 21 Table 11. Chemical Compatibility Data for Phase II Tank Design Components........................ 22 Table 12. List of Alloys Used in Appurtenances.......................................................................... 23 Table 13. Nominal Alloy Composition of Alloys (Compositional data, accessed May, 2007) ... 24 Table 14. Types of Soils Listed in Order of Water Retention Capacity (Corrosion Doctors, 2007)

..................................................................................................................................... 25 Table 15. Corrosivity Ratings Based Upon Soil Resistivity......................................................... 25 Table 16. Numerical Corrosivity Scale (ANSI, 1999)................................................................. 26 Table 17. Corrosion Rates of Zinc in Various U.S. Soils (ASM, 2005c)..................................... 30 Table 18. Summary of Expected Corrosion Performance for Appurtenances in Soil and Under

Dome........................................................................................................................... 34

List of Figures

Figure ES-1. Side View Rendering of Preferred Underground Composite Propane Tank .......... iv Figure ES-2. Vapor Space Connection ........................................................................................... v

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Tank Construction Section View.................................................................................... 7 LPG Cluster Valve. ...................................................................................................... 11 Side View Rendering of Preferred Underground Composite Propane Tank ............... 12 Proposed Tank System Vapor Space Connection and Side View................................ 13 Cost Estimates for the 250-, 500-, and 1000-Gallon Underground Composite Propane

Tanks........................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 6. United States Carbon Steel Prices, January 1997 to September 2009 .......................... 17 Figure 7. United States Carbon Polyethylene Resin Prices, October 2003 to September 2009... 18 Figure 8. Depth of Atmospheric Corrosion Attack on Aluminum Alloys 1100 (ASM, 2005a).. 31 Figure 9. Typical Thickness Loss for Brass Alloys in Marine Atmospheres as a Function of Time

(ASM, 2005b) ............................................................................................................. 32 Figure 10. Corrosion Rates of Zinc Exposed to Different Atmospheric Environments

(ASM, 2005c) ............................................................................................................. 33

Alternative Underground Propane Tank Materials, Phase II—Final Report

ix

September 2009 Battelle and Lincoln Composites

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