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(Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare et al.) in 2004 and in 2005 the first study of international labour migrants from Mongolia was released (Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare et al.).

(A) Internal Migrants

The 2000 national census records lifetime (‘permanent’) migration, during 1995-2000, and during the previous year of the census. As for China, many short-term moves are not captured in the census. The largest flow during 1995-2000 was from the western region to other regions, mainly to Ulaanbaatar and the central region. The south had the second largest number of people who migrated to the central region.

More men migrate than women. For example, there were 7,000 more male migrants in 1999 than females (42,900 versus 36,100). Most migrants were in the 15 to 25 year age group for both men and women. However, it is not clear what proportion of migrants were travelling with their family.

Figure 2: Number (x1000) of net in-migrants to Ulaanbaatar by region, 1995-2000

Figure 2 shows net in-migration to Ulaanbaatar during the five years 1995-2000. For example, with a population of 760,100 in 2000, the five-year in-migrants to Ulaanbaatar were 95,435, and the one-year in-migrants were 41,985. The smaller towns such as the border towns of Zamiin-Uud in the South near China and Darkhan-Uul in the North near the Russian Federation near the Mongolian railway also experienced rapid growth in recent years. Urbanisation is expected to become more

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