rapid after the cross-state (from east to west) railway is constructed, since most towns will be near the railway.
The 2001 study found that 80% of rural-urban migrants live in gers, the employment participation rate is only 42.4% and unemployment was 23%, education levels are low, access to health services is low, and 37% of migrants were assessed as living in poverty. The 2004 study paid more attention to policy recommendations and stressed the need for adequate education, employment, health insurance — the need for comprehensive policies to address the situation currently facing many rural-urban migrants. Like China, the household registration system has curtailed access to services in the cities if people moved without permission. This aggravated their situation as they left rural areas in order to make a better life than they had.
Mongolia has an active Human Rights Commission and a recent landmark ruling opened up the possibility of urban registration for more people. This will help but many migrants still remain highly vulnerable.
(B) International migration
The 2005 report relies on sample surveys in three countries, the Czech Republic, Republic of Korea and the USA, and has no national data on the number of workers abroad. However, according to the national census, both the number of foreign residents in Mongolia and out-migrants from Mongolia is small, as shown in Table 2. However, the numbers are believed to be under-estimated due to poor information on mobile populations and the fact that many people are irregular migrants.
Table 2: Recorded migrants in Mongolia, 2000
Source: Mongolia Population and Housing Census 2000.