J. Ruiz del Castillo et al. / Invest Agrar: Sist Recur For (2006) Fuera de serie, 24-39
pine forests occupy smaller areas: Pinus uncinata (10.09%) and Pinus nigra (2.06%). Forests with first dominant species being Abies alba represent just over 2%. The different communities dominated by Cu- pressaceae reach 3.37% (0.2% of Juniperus thurifera). Abies pinsapo (0.20%) and Betula (0.47%) communities have a smaller importance. Dense, high mountain grasslands of genera Festuca, Carex and Agrostis make up a significant set (10.21%), spread mainly throughout the Cantabrian and the Pyrenees ranges. Broom-like scrubs (8%), with species such as Cytisus purgans, Genista obtusiramea and a lesser extent of Genista florida and Genista gr. cinerea, represent a conspi- cuous group as well. Non thorny scrubs (4.86%) bring together a wide variety of communities dominated by genera such as Vaccinium, Arctostaphylos, Rhodo- dendron, Buxus, Coronilla, Helianthemum, Thymus etc. There is a smaller abundance of thorny scrubs (2.81%) which contain species of the genera Genista, Echinospartum, Erinacea, along with non spiny plants such as Thymus etc. Dominant taxa are Erica and Calluna vulgaris in heathlands (2.49%).
In the Deciduous Type vegetation (Table 8), the mo- nospecific beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) mean the largest area (10.99%) along with multi- and oligospecific
Table 8. Main plant communities in the Deciduous type and area porcentages
forests (8.59%) made up of several proportions of spe- cies belonging to the genera Quercus (Q. robur, Q. py- renaica and Q. petraea in a lesser extent), Betula, Castanea, Prunus, Sorbus, Acer, Tilia and even Fraxinus. Monospecific oak forests of Quercus robur (2.86%), Quercus pyrenaica (2.49%) and Quercus petraea (1.01%) are less abundant. In connection with conifers presence, pine forests of Pinus pinaster (9.52%) play an important role, followed by Pinus radiata (6.67%) and finally Pinus sylvestris (3.80%). Eucalyptus forests (almost solely of Eucalyptus globulus), represent 6.96%. The most abundant non arboreous communities are scrubs of Ulex species (12.56%), pastures (12.00%) and several heathlands (5.87%), mainly with Erica vagans.
Communities of Quercus are the most abundant plant covers in the Subsclerophyll Type vegetation (Table 9), then followed by shrublands (just over 27%) and pine forests (almost 25%); Quercus ilex forests represent the first main position (15.25%), usually with other co-dominant taxa such as Quercus faginea, Quercus pyrenaica (both of them being characteristic of this Type) and Pinus species. Oligo- and multispeci-
Table 9. Main plant communities in the Subsclerophyll type Subsclerophyll type Plant community % of area
Deciduous type Plant community
Mono- and oligospecific communities of Ulex spp. Pastures Beech forests (most dominant Fagus sylvatica) Pine forests (most dominant Pinus pinaster) Deciduous multi- and oligospecific forests Blue gum forests (most dominant Eucalyptus globulus) Pine forests (most dominant Pinus radiata) Oligo- and multispecific heathlands Mixed grassy-woody pastures Pine forests (most dominant Pinus sylvestris) Oak forests (most dominant Quercus robur) Broom-like scrubs Oak forests ( most dominant Quercus pyrenaica) Sweet chestnut forests (most dominant Castanea sativa) Oak forests (most dominant Quercus petraea) Fern communities (Pteridium aquilinum) Others
% of area
12.56 12.00 10.99 9.52 8.59
6.96 6.67 5.87 4.08 3.80 2.86 2.81 2.49
1.43 1.01 0.97 7.39
Oak forests (most dominant, Quercus ilex) Oligo and multispecific non thorny scrubs Oak forests (most dominant, Quercus pyrenaica) Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus nigra) Oak forests (most dominant, Quercus faginea) Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus sylvestris) Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus pinaster) Grasslands Oligo- and multispecific heathlands Mono and oligospecific thorny bushswood Pine forests (most dominant Pinus halepensis) Communities most dominant Juniperus thurifera Broom-like scrubs Cork oak forests (most dominant, Quercus suber) Mono and oligospecific communities of Cistus spp. Communities of Buxus sempervirens Sweet chestnut forests (most dominant Castanea sativa) Oak forests (most dominant Quercus humilis) Pine forests (most dominant Pinus pinea) Blue gum (mainly Eucalyptus globulus) Pine forests (most dominant Pinus radiata) Others
15.25 10.64 10.16 8.61 7.01 6.56 6.26 5.24 3.46 3.23 2.76 2.49 2.36 2.23
0.84 0.76 0.63 0.35 0.14 8.41