The Forest Map of Spain 1:200,000
fic non thorny scrubs are the second most significant phytocenoses (10.64%), an extremely diverse group of Mediterranean scrubs with many co-dominant species of genera Halimium, Thymus, Genista, Lavandula, Cistus, Adenocarpus, Ononis, Erica, Satureja, Helianthemum, Helichrysum etc. The third posititon corresponds to Quercus pyrenaica communities (10.16%), either mo- nospecific or mixed with other species such as Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus sylvestris etc. Quercus faginea oak forests represent 7.01% and are usually accompanied by Quercus ilex or Pinus nigra; these last two species are nowadays in clear progression due to the abandonment of grazing activities and the shelte- ring provided by pine or Quercus ilex forests which leads to believe that in the near future there will be a considerable increase in their prevalence. P. nigra forests are the most abundant pine communties (8.61%), followed by P. sylvestris (6.56%) and P. pinaster (6.26%). Grasslands (5.24%) represent a vast set of plant covers dominated by herbaceous taxa. Other groups are represented by less than 5%.
Species of the genera Quercus (with just over 42%) and Pinus (just over 21%) are the most dominant. The set which covers the largest area is the holm oak forests (most dominant Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and to a lesser extent subsp. ilex), which includes most of dehesas and a large amount of shrublands; these communities are frequently co-dominated by Quercus suber, Pinus pinaster, Pinus halepensis and Juniperus thurifera. The second most abundant community are the pine forests, generally dominated by Pinus halepensis with an important role as they protect soil against erosion and desertification. The third position corresponds to a heterogeneous group of scrubs (8.53%) made up of a wide variety of mostly non thorny, non broom-like species of genera Cistus, Halimium, Thymus, Lavandula, Pistacia, Phillyrea, Rhamnus, Genista, Ononis, Thyme- laea etc. Grasslands are less significant (7.20%). Scrubs of Rosmarinus officinalis make up over 2%. There is a smaller presence of different communities of Cistus (mainly, Cistus ladanifer), along with communities of Stipa tenacissima and several types of heathlands.
The relative abundance of plant covers belonging to the Sclerophyll Type vegetation is set out in Table 10.
Table 10. Main Sclerophyll type plant community Sclerophyllous type Plant community % of area
Retama sphaerocarpa prevails in most of the broom- like scrubs (2.98%). For mono- and oligospecific thorny scrubs, the most important species are Genista scorpius, Ulex parviflorus, Ulex eriocladus and other related taxa. It is worth pointing out that in this Type there is a marginal presence of pine tree forests of Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris, as well as communities of Juniperus thurifera.
Oak forests (most dominant, Quercus ilex) Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus halepensis) Oligo and multispecific non thorny scrubs Grasslands Cork oak forests (most dominant, Quercus suber) Pine forests (most dominant Pinus pinaster) Broom-like scrubs Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus pinea) Blue gum forests (mainly Eucalyptus globulus) Mono- and oligospecific thorny scrubs Mono- and oligospecific communities of Rosmarinus officinalis Communities of Cistus ladanifer Communities Quercus coccifera as dominant Communities of Stipa tenacissima Oligospecific communities of Cistus spp. Pine forests (most dominant Pinus nigra) Communities Olea europaea as most dominant Communities of Juniperus oxycedrus Oligo- and multispecific heathlands Communities of Juniperus thurifera as most dominant Pine forests (most dominant, Pinus sylvestris) Others
36.22 13.90 8.53 7.20 4.66 3.84 2.98 2.92 2.87 2.16
2.07 1.90 1.59 0.88 0.65 0.55 0.44 0.43 0.14
0.08 0.07 5.92
The main Hyperxerophile Type plant communities and their relative area are shown on Table 11. Pinus
Table 11. Main hyperxerophile type plant community
% of area
Pine forests of Pinus halepensis as most dominant 30.83
Communities of Stipa tenacissima Oligo- and multispecific scrubs Communities of Anthyllis cytisoides Mono- and oligospecific communities of Rosmarinus officinalis Mono- and oligospecific communities of Artemisia herba-alba Communities of Chamaerops humilis Communities of Retama sphaerocarpa Grasslands
26.61 17.19 6.96
3.54 1.18 0.93 0.58
Communities of Juniperus thurifera as most dominant Others