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Planning woodland management

and field layers. However, it is important to note that, although problematic in terms of general structure and regeneration, closed canopy woodlands are favoured by some priority bird species, eg pied flycatcher, wood warbler.

bramble, which, for example, are strongly associated with turtle dove nest sites in scrubby woodland edge situations and thicket-stage conifers.

Shrub layer

A shrub layer is one of the most important woodland structural components, ideally consisting of low-growing scrub and trees of a variety of species providing structural variation. The shrub layer can provide year-round foraging opportunities (invertebrates, fruit and seeds), nesting sites, and shelter for a wide range of biodiversity. Climbing plants in the shrub layer can be useful additions to woodland structure, eg ivy has an outstanding value for birds and other wildlife and is not harmful to healthy trees. Other climbing plants that should be encouraged to grow include traveller’s joy, honeysuckle and

Figure 10 Features of a well-structured woodland. Note the presence of mature trees with snags, deadwood, younger replacement trees and a well-developed shrub layer.

Table 8 Woodland structural elements favoured by priority species.

Garden warbler

Willow warbler

Wood warbler

Firecrest

Spotted flycatcher

Pied flycatcher

Willow tit

Marsh tit

Lesser redpoll

Bullfinch

Hawfinch

Species

Canopy layer and

Honey buzzard Black grouse Woodcock Turtle dove Nightjar

understorey

Shrub

Field

Clearings

layer

layer

within

Lesser spotted woodpecker

Woodlark Tree pipit

woodland

Woodland

Wet

edge

features

Dead- wood

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