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increases the invertebrate biomass available to birds.

Deadwood is also very important in providing nest sites, eg dead stumps, rotten heartwood, standing deadwood, dead limbs of live trees. Many declining woodland birds are dependent on deadwood to provide nesting opportunities, eg lesser spotted woodpecker, marsh tit, willow tit.

Woodland edge

The perimeter of a woodland can vary considerably but often, due to neighbouring land use, there can be a ‘hard’ boundary between the woodland and adjacent land. The woodland edge is

Planning woodland management

very valuable to birds, eg black grouse, and has much potential for positive management. Where an edge exists with a varied structure and diversity of plant species and scrub, many birds can benefit.

Wet features

The presence of wet features in and around broadleaved woodlands can be greatly beneficial to some woodland birds. Patches of wetlands and ponds can increase invertebrate biomass and amphibian populations. Honey buzzards in Wales are known to include frogs in their diet and nightjars often use wetlands up to 3 km from the nest site for foraging. Woodland pools are also essential drinking habitats for hawfinches.

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