Long-distance migrant, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa
Principal Biodiversity Species in Wales
The Population Status of Birds in Wales:
1–6 year-old conifer re-stocks. Isolated trees are used as song posts and for display.
Nesting: nests are located on flat or gently sloping ground, usually in low cover.
Population trend and distribution
A widely distributed summer visitor, although they have been declining in Wales since the 1980s. The RWBS shows a decline of 71% (the RSPB) and 37% (BTO), and the BBS shows a decline of 35% in Wales between 1994 and 2007.
Feeding: Invertebrates form most of the diet, eg grasshoppers, earwigs, bugs, butterflies, moths, ants, beetles, flies, spiders and snails. These are usually collected from the ground, low herbage and leaf litter. Occasionally food is gleaned from twigs and branches, or during short, aerial forays.
General: in Wales, tree pipits are typically associated with open ground in upland oak woods, coniferous plantations (clearfells), and ffridd. They require clearings of 1–5 ha in extent, or occupy woodland edge areas with a low coverage in field layer, eg bracken with bramble and herbs, low leaf litter and bare ground, typically on dry ground. Such conditions are often found in
Changes in woodland structure, such as canopy closure resulting in a reduction of open areas, eg glades and clearfells, which reduce the extent of the breeding habitat.
Changes in grazing pressures in open wooded habitats, resulting in the
23 Preliminary assessment for 2008 revision of The Population Status of Birds in Wales: Amber-listed.
Figure 26 Breeding distribution of the tree pipit in Wales.