Mark A. LePage, MD, Ella A. Kazerooni, MD, Mark A. Helvie, MD and Edwin G. Wilkins, MD. Breast Reconstruction with TRAM Flaps: Normal and Abnormal Appearances at CT1 Radiographics. 1999;19:1593-1603
Are abs essential for stability?
Results in weakness of abdominal muscles. No effect on back pain or impairment to the patient’s functional / movement activities, measured up to several years after the operation (Mizgala et al., 1994; Simon et al., 2004).