IRAN - IRAQ BOUNDARY
I. BOUNDARY BRIEF
The Iran–Iraq boundary extends for 1,458 kilometers (906 miles) between the tripoint with Turkey on Kuh-e Dalanper and the terminal point of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf. From northwest to southeast, the line utilizes a number of high drainage divides, continues along the western edge of the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, and then crosses a broad plain to the Shatt al Arab. It follows the thalweg of the Shatt al Arab downstream for 105 kilometers (65 miles). The boundary is demarcated throughout by pillars or rivers.
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In a Treaty of Peace and Demarcation of Frontiers signed at Zohab in 1639, Iran (Persia) and the Ottoman Empire, commonly referred to as Turkey (the predecessor state of Iraq in the area), delimited a common boundary in the territory between the Zagros Mountains on the east and the Tigris on the west. The alignment of this initial boundary was somewhat indefinite because towns and sites were allocated primarily on the basis of tribal loyalties. Following a Russo–Turkish agreement in 1724, for the partition of Iran, Turkey invaded Iran. In accordance with the peace treaty concluded at Hamadan in 1727, the westernmost provinces of Iran were ceded to Turkey. Iran and Turkey resumed hostilities in 1743, and a peace treaty signed at Kherden in 1746 reaffirmed the boundary of 1639.
the Irano that the
in 1821 - 22, the Treaty 1746 was considered
of Erzurum, signed in 1823,
commission, including Iranian, Turkish, British, and 1843. The work of the commission culminated in during the period of May 19 - 31, 1847.
Russian officials, a second Treaty
was established in of Erzurum signed
The second Treaty of Erzurum delimited a boundary in the Shatt al Arab for the first time. Iran received the town and port of Khorramshahr (formerly known as Mummarah or Muhammarah), the island of Abadan (Khizr), the Abadan anchorage, and the left bank (eastern bank) of the river. The treaty was commonly interpreted to mean that the river would remain under Turkish sovereignty, but "Persian vessels shall have the right to navigate freely without let or hindrance on the Shatt al Arab from the mouth of the same to the point of contact of the frontiers of the two Parties." Also in this treaty, Iran abandoned all claim to the town and province of As Sulaymaniyah. Iran ceded the lowlands of the province of Zohab to Turkey, and, in return, Turkey ceded the mountainous area of the province and the Kirind valley to Iran.
The Treaty of 1847 provided for a commission to delimit the boundary, and work progressed along the boundary during the period 1848–52. Then the Crimean War halted work relative to the delimitation by the boundary commission. At the conclusion of the war, British and Russian surveyors met at St. Petersburg, and after eight years produced two