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opposite the present Jetty No. I at Abadan (being approximately latitude 30º20'8.4" North, longitude 48º16'13" East). From this point, it shall return to low water mark, and follow the frontier line indicated in the 1914 Minutes.

The change of the boundary to the thalweg at Abadan eliminated one of the main Iranian grievances, which was that the jetties in the area were in Iraqi waters. The 1937 treaty also declared that there should be free navigation for merchant vessels of all countries and stipulated that a convention should be concluded between Iran and Iraq dealing with pilotage, collection of dues, and other administrative questions.

During World War II, Iran was again under Russian influence in the north and British influence in the south. In January 1942, the de facto occupation of Iran was acknowledged in a British–Iranian–Soviet Tripartite Treaty. Between December 1945 and December 1946, a Soviet–sponsored autonomous republic existed in the Azerbaijan area of northwest Iran.

Following World War II, problems continued along the boundary, and Iran was desirous of establishing the thalweg as the boundary in the Shatt al Arab. At the initiative of President Boumediene of Algeria in early 1975, Shahanshah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and Saddam Husayn, Vice-Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Iraq, met and discussed relations between their two countries.

On March 6, 1975, a joint communique was issued in Algiers by Iran and Iraq relative to the resolution of the problems of their common boundary as follows: (1) to undertake the final demarcation of their land boundaries on the basis of the Constantinople Protocol of 1913 and the proces verbaux of the Boundary Delimitation Commission of 1914; and (2) to delimit their river boundary according to the thalweg line.

At the conclusion of a meeting between their Foreign Ministers in Tehran, March 15–17, 1975, Iran and Iraq signed a protocol covering the points contained in the Algiers agreement. To implement the provisions of the protocol, individual committees were organized for the demarcation of the land boundary, determination of the riverine boundary on the basis of the thalweg, and the establishment of full control on the boundary. A proces-verbal was signed at Algiers on May 20, 1975, for the drafting of a final boundary treaty that would include the necessary protocols and annexes.

A Treaty Relating to the State Boundary and Good–Neighborliness between Iran and Iraq and three protocols with their annexes were signed at Bagdad on June 13, 1975. A Protocol Relating to the Redemarcation of the Land Boundary between Iran and Iraq was accompanied by two annexes: (1) Description of the Iran Land Border (lists the boundary pillars between the Shatt al Arab and the Turkish tripoint); and (2) Boundary Coordinates (includes both geographic and Universal Transverse Mercator [UTM] coordinates for boundary pillars).

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