Master Sanskrit Easil
denotes mere action, (bh¹va-v¹caka) irrespective of any Person and Number. And, since they are used as adjectives. they have to agree syntactically with the substantive in Gender, Case and Number, as for instance, neyam agrees with cittam, while kartavyaå agrees with sañcayaå. These adjectival forms can be used in different Cases and Numbers, as would be needed so as to agree syntactically with those of the substantive concerned.
In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara-
ª»yam, taraª»yam, etc., the termination –an»ya
is applied. Thus,
haraª»yam= hÅ (har)+an»ya+am /ucc¹raª»yam= ut+car+ an»ya + am.
And, in the case of the forms like geyam, dhyeyam, neyam and deyam,the termination –ya is applied. Thus, gai+ya+am= ge+ya+am / N»+ya+am=ne+ya+am / D¹+ya+am=de+ya+am.
P¹ªini mentions in all four terminations, viz., -tavya -tavyat, - an»yar, and -yat to be applied to a root to derive a Potential Participle from it. These derivative forms are thus distinguished as adjectival forms, from the regular verbal forms of the roots in the Potential Mood.
bhÅtavat, anusÅtavat, pahitavat, likhitavat, sak¬itavat, dØ¬itavat, etc., are formed, and their adjectival forms like bhuktav¹n, bhØktavantau, bhuktavantaå, etc., are declined in various Cases and Numbers. Such a Past Participle, whether Active or Passive serves as an adjective of some noun or pronoun used as the subject of a sentence. Thus, they are the adjectives derived from verbal roots and denote sense of their the Past Tense.
We have noted that the base of the Past Passive Participle ends in –ta, while that of the Past Active Participle ends in –tavat. In the P¹ªinian terminology, these terminations are mentioned as –kta and – ktavatu, respectively, and P¹ªini calls both these terminations jointly by the name Ni¬h¹, and the words formed by affixing these terminations are known as Kt¹nta and Ktavanta, or jointly as Ni¬h¹nta.
Since the Past Passive Participles are a-k¹r¹nta, they are declined like the a-k¹r¹nta nouns like r¹ma, and since the Past Active Participles are ta-k¹r¹nta, they are declined as ta-k¹r¹nta nouns Iike bhavat.
Case Pra./ Nom.
Now let us see, by way of specimens, the declension of the ta- k¹r¹nta noun bhuktavat, both in Masculine and Neuter: