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kheda-yukt¹å na karaª»y¹å=should not be displeased, made sorrowful. ¸va¶yake karmaªI =yat karma ava¶ya‚ kartum yogyam, tasmin vi¬aye = in actions that are obligatory. Pram¹daå= ¹lasyam= laziness. Na karaª»yaå=should not be done. Suktam=good saying, fair words. Uktam=spoken. Ripoå=¶atru-janasya = of the enemy. Api=even, also, too. Na du¬aª»yam=do¶a-pØrªam na mantavyam= should not be taken as full of faults. Bh¹ry¹-putr¹dh»nam= bh¹ry¹y¹å (= patny¹å), putr¹ª¹‚ ca adh»na‚ yath¹ sy¹t tath¹ = so as to be under the possession of the wife and sons. Na vidh¹n»yam= vidh¹na-yukta‚ na kartavyam= should not be legally stipulated. Ka¬e¬u=kÅcchre¬u=p»©¹-d¹yaka- paristhiti¬u= in difficulties, adverse situations. Vratam=niyamaå= a vow. Na tyajan»yam=ty¹gaå na kartavyaå = should not be given up. A- d¹na-tapaskam= d¹nena tapasyay¹ ca h»nam= without charity and penance. Dinam= divasaå = day. Na ati-v¹han»yam= na vyatitavyam= should not be passed.
Grammatical An¹lysis: Vi¬vasaniyam= Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root vi+¶vas (2 P. ‘to rely on, put faith in). Prakaan»yam= Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the adjectival root prakaa. Vyayan»yam = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root vyay (10 U.’ to expend, bestow). PronmØlan»yaå= Nom. Sing. (Mas.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root pra+ut+mØl (10 U. ‘to root out’). Rañjan»yaå= Nom. Sing. (Mas.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root rañj (4 U. ‘to dye, colour, be pleased, be devoted to, be in love with). Khedan»ya= Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root khid (4 ¸., 6 P., 7 ¸. ‘to strike, afflict, be depressed, suffer pain, be miserable). Karaª»yaå= Nom. Sing. (Mas.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root kÅ (8 U. ‘to do’). DØ¬aª»yam = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root du¬ (4 P. ‘to be wrong, impure’) in Causal. Vidh¹n»yam= Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root vi+dh¹ (3 U. ‘to make, to stipulate). Tyajan»yam = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root tyaj (1 P. ‘to abandon, to give up). Ativ¹han»yam = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Caus. Pot. Par. derived from the verbal root ati+vah (1 U. ‘to pass’).
ancestors), sv¹h¹ (=may a blessing rest on, hail! hail to!), alam (=enough, sufficient, adequate, equal to, compe- tent, able), va¬a / vau¬a (= an exclamation uttered by the sacrificial priest at the end of the sacrificial verse), asti (= it is said, it was in ancient times, they say in olden days) up¹‚¶u (=lightly muttering), mÅ¬¹ (=false, untrue), mithy¹ (=false, useless, in vain, fake), mudh¹ (=false, useless, in vain), pur¹ (=formerly, in ancient times, in olden days), mitha / mitho (= together, mutually, reciprocally, alternately, to or from or with each other, privately, in secret), pr¹yas (= mostly, generally), abh»k¬ªam (= often, again and again), s¹kam / s¹rdham (= with, along with, simultaneously), namas = (salutation), dhik (=fie! shame! pshaw!), atha (=now, auspicious beginning), ¹m (=yes, alright), m¹ / m¹¡ (= no, not, lest). These indeclinable words have been put under the sub- list called ¸kÅti-gaªa under the main list Svar¹di-gaªa.
But, the following indeclinable words, viz., ca (=and), v¹ (=or), aha (=Oh!), h¹(= O!), eva (= only, merely), evam (=thus, in this way, in this manner), nØnam (= realy, in fact, but), ¶a¶vat (= often, from time to time), yugapat (=once), bhØyas (= often, over again), cet (=in case, if), yatra (=where), tatra (=there), kvacit (=somewhere), hanta (=alas!) m¹¡ (= no, not, lest), nañ (not), y¹vat (=as much), t¹vat (=that much), ¶rau¬a, va¬a, vau¬a, svadh¹, sv¹h¹, tath¹-hi (=for that reason, hence, to the same effect), khalu (=indeed), kila (=it is said), atha, su¬hu (=well, good), sma (denoting the past tense) have been listed in the Svar¹di-gaªa as corresponding to the prefix, case and vowel (upasarga-vibhakti-svara-prati-rØpaka). In the Third K¹ª©a of the Amarako¶a,, such ideclinable words have been listed in the verses 240 onwards, in the sub-class called ‘N¹n¹rtha-varga’ under the main class ‘Avyaya-varga’
Now, read aloud over again the verses and the prose passage, along with their Sanskrit explanation, trying to grasp the meaning. ____________________________________________________________
For those interested in the Amarako¶a, the Edition published by the Nirnaya Sagar,
Bombay (now Mumbai), with the Commentary by Bh¹nuj» D»k¬ita will be very useful, as it explains every word grammatically in the P¹ªinian manner.