Master Sanskrit Easily
(=when, at which time), tad¹ (=at that time, then), yadi (=if, in case), cet (=if it be proposed that), tarhi (=in that case, then it follows that), etc., are grammatically known as the Indeclinable (avyaya) usages, because they are used without any declensional changes in the context of Gender, Case, Number. And, it is difficult to analyze them grammatically as to their underlying verbal root, noun, base, termination, etc., although as per the outlook of the P¹ªinian system, every verbal root or the nominal base takes some or other termination before they are used in the sentence, but when these are not found actually applied to it, it is technically taken as elided grammatically. Among such Indeclinable usages the Infinitive tum-anta) words like gantum, are notable as quite different. Such Indeclinable usages were current since ancient times, although, it is almost impossible to trace their original source.
To draw our attention to, and remind us of, this fact, P¹ªini has used the term ‘Nip¹ta’, explained as Nipatanti iti nip¹taå / It means those words in the Sanskrit language that have been just in popular use since time immemorial, and their origin cannot be traced nor can they be grammatically analyzed. He has listed all such words in the Svar¹di- gaªa of his Gaªa-p¹ha. Some of them are: svar (=heaven), antar (=in, inside), pr¹tar (= in the morning), uccaiå (= from above, aloud), n»caiå (=from under, below, in a low tone), ¶anaiå (=slowly), Åte (=without) yugapat (=simultaneously), ¹r¹t (= from a distance, near, immediately), pÅthak (-=separate, different), hyas (= yesterday), ¶vas (=tomorrow), r¹trau (=at night), s¹yam (= in the evening), ciram (=for a long time), »¬at (=little, slightly, partly), jo¬am (=quiet, silent), tØ¬ª»m (= silently, quietly), bahis (=outside), svayam (=by one’s self, of one’s own accord, volun- tarily, vÅth¹ (=uselessly, in vain, fruitlessly), naktam (=at night). nañ (=negation, a negative particle), hetau = because of, for the reason that, by reason of), -vat (=endowed with, possessing, like), tiras (=hidden, out of sight), antar¹ (=in the middle, in between), antareªa = without, in the absence of, in between, about), sahas¹ (=suddenly), vin¹ (=without, in the absence of), n¹n¹ (= various, many), svasti (= well-being, fortune, luck, success, prosperity), svadh¹ (=self-position, self-power, inherent power, be it offered to the spirits of the deceased
Saty¹n na pramaditavyam / Dhamrm¹n na pra-madi tavyam / Ku¶al¹n na pra-maditavyam / BhØteå na pra-maditavyam / Sv¹dhy¹ya-pravacan¹bhy¹‚ na pra-maditavyam/ Deva-pitÅ- k¹ry¹bhy¹‚ na pra-maditavyam / Y¹ni y¹ny anavady¹ni karm¹ªi t¹ni sevitavy¹ni, no itar¹ªi / Y¹ny asm¹ka‚ su-carit¹ni t¹ni tvayop¹sy¹ni, no itar¹ªi /
Saty¹t = satya-p¹lan¹t (=from Truth-speaking) Na pra- maditavyam = pram¹daå na kartavyaå = should not neglect, not be indifferent to, heedless about. Dharm¹t =dharmasya p¹lan¹t = from observing religious duty. Ku¶al¹t = ma¡gal¹t= kaly¹ª¹t=from the welfare. BhØteå = ai¶vary¹t = well being, prosperity, fortune. Sv¹dhy¹ya-pravacan¹bhy¹m= svasya dainikaå ¶¹stra-p¹haå sv¹dhy¹yaå, ¶¹stra-vacan¹n¹‚ vivaraª¹rtham upade¶aå pravacanam, t¹bhy¹m = from the daily studies and oral exposition. Deva-pitÅ- k¹ry¹bh¹m = deva-k¹rya‚ homaå, pitÅ-k¹rya‚ ¶r¹ddha‚ pitÅ-tarpaªa‚ ca, t¹bhy¹m = from the worship pf gods and of the manes. An-avady¹ni = a-nindy¹ni = pra¶ast¹ni = irreproachable, faultless. Sevitavy¹ni = should be pursued. Itar¹ªI = any¹ni = others. Su-carit¹ni = su¬hu ¹caraª¹ni = good actions, conduct. Up¹sy¹ni = should be worshipped,
Coalescence: saty¹t+na, dharm¹+na,
Y¹ni+anavady¹ni (i+a=ya) / Y¹ni+asm¹kam (i+a=ya)
Verbal Forms: Pramaditavyam = Nom. Sing. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. of the verbal root pra+mad (4 P. ‘to neglect, be indifferent to’). Sevitavy¹ni = Nom. Pl. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. of the verbal root sev (1 ¸. ‘to pursue’). Up¹sy¹ni = Nom. Pl. (Neu.) of the Pot. Par. of the verbal root up+¹s (2 ¸. ‘to worship’).
In the English syntactical construction the Case terminations are not suffixed to the nouns or adjectives, as for instance in ‘ to the black cat’, ‘from the black cat’, ‘of the black cat’. But in Sanskrit sentence construction the Case terminations are suffixed to both the substantives and the adjectives, as for instance, Karm¹ªi up¹sy¹ni /
It is useful and convenient to remember the following verse that incorporates the above linguistic usage: