Master Sanskrit Easily
Yal-li¡ga‚ yad-vacana‚ y¹ ca vibhaktir vi¶e¬yasya /
Tal-li¡ga‚ tad-vacana‚ s¹ ca vibhaktir vi¶e¬aªasya // SanskÅta-v¹kya-racan¹y¹‚ vi¶e¬ya‚ (substantive) yasmin (=in which) li¡ge (=gender) bhavati, tasminn eva (=in that very) li¡ge vi¶e¬aªa‚ (=adjective) bhavati / yasmin vacane (=number) vi¶e¬ya‚ bhavati, tasminn eva vacane vi¶e¬aªa‚ (=adjective) bhavati / Yasya‚ (=in which) vibhaktau (=case) vi¶e¬ya‚ (substantive) bhavati tasminn eva vibhaktau vi¶e¬aªa‚ (=adjective) bhavati / Eva‚-rØpeªa (=in this form) vi¶e¬ya‚ sadaiva (=always) li¡ga-vi¬aye (in the matter of gender) vacana-vi¬aye (=in the matter of number) vibhakti-vi¬aye (=in the matter of case) ca vi¬e¬yam anusarati (=follows).
Now, read aloud the following sentences, trying tograso their meanings: Nirdhano yady uccas tad¹ stambhaå / Yadi kharvas tad¹ v¹manaå / Yadi gauras tad¹ ‘’¹ma-v¹t» / Yadi kÅ¬ªas tad¹ vanecara- bhillaå / Yady alp¹h¹ras tad¹ mandaå / Yadi bahv-¹h¹ras tad¹ k¬¹ra-kÅt / Yady ¹©ambar» tad¹ viaå / Yadi vinay» tad¹ bhik¬¹c¹raå / Yadi mita-bh¹¬» tad¹ mØko mØrkha¶ ca / Yadi v¹gm» tad¹ jalp¹kaå / Yadi ¶am» tad¹ bh»ru ra¡ka¶ ca / Yadi pral¹p» ¶Øras tad¹ dh¹»- v¹hakaå / Ki‚ bahun¹ ? Nirdhanasya guª¹ api do¬¹ gaªyante / Evam eva sevakasy¹pi / Evam eva vadhØ-janasy¹pi /
Coalescence: Yadi+uccaå (i+u=yu). Similarly, in Yadi+ alp¹h¹raå (i+a=ya), yadi=¹©ambar» / Here, there is yaª-sandhi, i.e., the change of i to y when followed by a dissimilar vowel. Uccaå+tad¹ (å+t =st)/ Similarly, in alp¹h¹raå+tad¹, kharvaå+tad¹, gauraå+tada, kÅ¬ªaå +tad¹, alp¹h¹raå+ tad¹, bahv-¹h¹raå+tad¹, ¶Øraå+tad¹, (å+t= st). Here, the visarga (:) is changed to s when followed by t. Tad¹+¹mav¹t» (¹+¹=¹’’, merger of both, and elision of the sub- sequent ¹ shown by avagraha in the Devan¹gar», and double apostrophe in the Roman scripts). MØrkhaå+ ca (å+c=¶c)/ Similarly, in ra¡kaå+ca / Here, the visarga (:) followed by c is changed to ¶. Guª¹å+api (-¹å+a- =-¹ a- ) / Here, the visarga (:) receded by ¹ and followed by a is elided.
Now, compare the words separated above with the same
+i+tum, and grah+i+tum. DÅ¶ > dra (by change of Å to its guªa equivalent ra)+tum> um (by change of ¶ to ¬ and t to ).Av+g¹h
gahi (by addition of the id-¹gama) +tum. Thus, we should note
here that when the infinitive termination tum is applied, the following modifications take place in the verbal root, viz., the final short vowel is replaced by its corresponding guªa vowel, the id- ¹gama (i.e. the vowel –i-) is added after it in case it is a set one, the short vowel is replaced by its corresponding long one, and as per the rules of internal coalescence of the changes of c to k, the of the dental consonants are replaced by its corresponding retroflex ones.
Now, understand: Since the tum-anta (Infinitive) usages are indeclinable, they no not undergo any changes of Tense. Case, Number, in relation with the Person and Number of the verb. And, since this - tum termination is the one included under the KÅd-anta group, they are also known by the term Hetv-artha-kÅdanta, or Dh¹tu-s¹dhita hetu- v¹caka kÅrdant avyaya, i.e an indeclinable derived from a verbal root and denoting the sense of purpose or intention.
In the P¹ªiniam system such words as do not undergo the modifications in accordance with the Tense, Person and Number, and are used in the same form, are known by the term ‘Avyaya’ (=that which does not change.) To remember this the following verse is popular in the tradition of the Sanskrit grammarians:
SadÅ¶a‚ tri¬u li¡ge¬u sarv¹su ca vibhakti¬u / Vacane¬u ca sarve¬u yan na vyeti tad avyayam // Tri¬u li¡nge¬u yat, sadÅ¶am (=eka-rØpa‚=sam¹na‚), bhavati, sarv¹su ca vibhakti¬u yat sadÅ¶a‚ bhavati, sarve¶u ca vacane¬u yat sadÅ¶a‚ bhavati, eva‚ li¡ga-bhede ‘pi, vibhakti-bhede ‘pi, vacana-bhede ‘pi yat pada‚ na vyeti (=vyaya‚=pari-vartana‚, na pr¹pnoti) tad pada‚ tasmad eva k¹raª¹t, avyayam (=avyaya-sañja‚) kathyate ity- arthaå /
In Sanskrit, the words, ca (=and), iti(=viz., that means), eva (=only, merely, itself), api (=also), ataå (=therefore, hence, for this reason), tataå (=thence, for that reason), yath¹ (=just as, as for example, for instance), tath¹ (=like that, in that way, moreover), yad¹