Master Sanskrit Easily
V¹manaå ¹mra-phal¹ni grah»itu‚ katha‚ ¶aknoti ? Andhaå rØpa‚ dra¬u‚ katha‚ prabhavati ? Badhiro v»ª¹-nin¹da‚ ¶rotu‚ katha‚ p¹rayati ? Pa¡guå t»rth¹ny avag¹hitu‚ katha‚ ¶aknoti ? P¹¬¹ªaå saulum¹rye sth¹tu‚ katha‚ prabhavati ? K¹kaå ha‚saiå sama‚ sth¹tu‚ katha‚ p¹rayati ? MØrkhaå paª©ite¬u sth¹tu‚ katha‚ ¶aknoti ?
Atra sarve¬Ø v¹kye¬u pra¶n¹å / Te¬¹‚ na-k¹r¹rtha‚ ‘na ¶aknoti’, ‘na prabhavati’, ‘na p¹rayati’ iti v¹ pratyuttara‚ spa¬am eva / V¹manaå=dwarf. ¸mra-phal¹ni= mango fruits. Grah»tum=in order to catch. Katham = how ? ˜aknoti= prabhavati=p¹rayati= is able to, is capable of. Andhaå= blind person. RØpam= a form, beauty. Dra¬um = to see, is capable of seeing. Badhiraå = deaf person. V»ª¹-nin¹dam= a resonant sound. ˜rotum= to hear, for hearing. Pa¡guå= lame person. T»rth¹ni= holy river banks. Avag¹hitum= to take bath, for plunging into. P¹¬¹ªaå= stone. Saukum¹rye= in tender condition, Sth¹tum= to remain, in order to stay. K¹kaå= crow. Ha‚saiå =(with) swans. Samam = in company of, (be) with. MØrkhaå= Fool, stupid person. Paª©ite¬u = among the learned persons, scholars.
Now note: In the above verse and the sentences of the paragraph, since the termination tum is suffixed in the words upakartum, vaktum, kartum, n¹¬ayitum, pras¹dhayitum, unnetum, dra¬um, ¶rotum, avag¹hitum, and sth¹tum, they are called the tum-anta (=the indeclinable words ending in the termination tum) in the P¹ªinian system. They are the Infinive forms denoting the sense of a cause or purpose, expressed by the expressions, ‘in order to’, ‘for’, ‘to’, in English.
Now, let us look at these infinitives from the view point of grammatical analysis: Upa+kÅ (>kar)+tum (here, the final vowel Å of the verbal root kÅ has been replaced by its guªa equivalent ar. Vac+tum (the final consonant c of the verbal root vac has been changed to k. N¹¶ay (causal of the verbal root na¶)+i +tum, the i©¹gama has been added after the root before the termination. Ut+ni (>ne, by change of i to its guªa equivalent e)+tum, the coalescence t+n=nn. Similarly, pra+ s¹dhay (causal of the verbal root s¹dh)
coalescedin the above sentences and find out the relevant instances from them.
Stambhaå= a pillar. Kharvaå= dwarfish.
= black. Vane-cara-bhilla= an aborigine living in the forest. h¹raå= One eating less. Mandaå= a dullard. Bahv¹h¹raå= One much. K¬¹rakÅt=malicious, gluttonous. ¸©ambar»= osteta- Viaå=a paramour. Bhik¬¹c¹raå= One living on alms.
Alp¹- eating cious. Mita-
One speaking incoherently. ˜am»= Tranquil. v¹hakaå= robber. VadhØ-janaå= the wifefolk.
Now, read aloud over again the Sanskrit sentences in the above paragraph, keeping in mind the meanings of the words given above.
As to the gender of a word in Sanskrit language in general, one has to learn it from usage. In order to give an analytical outlook in the matter, P¹ªini and other Sanskrit grammarians subsequent to him have composed their works, called the Li¡g¹nu¶¹sanam. But, Amarsi‚ha had composed, at least 1500 years ago, a well-known work, named the N¹ma-li¡g¹nu¶¹sanam, popularly known as the Amara-ko¶a, comprising three K¹ª©as (=sections), which contains a collection of almost all the Sanskrit nouns and indeclinable words. It is in the metrical form containing verses. In the Sanskrit P¹ha¶¹las this Amarako¶a, in full or a part of it, is prescribed to the beginners, for memorizing even to day, along with the ˜abda-rØp¹val», the Sam¹sa- cakram and the Dh¹tu-rØp¹val». The Amarako¶a starts with the following verse giving details of his arrangement:
Pr¹ya¶o rØpa-bhedena s¹hacaryac ca kutracit / Str»-pu‚-napusaka‚ jñeya‚ tad-vi¶e¬avidheå kvacit // Pr¹ya¶aå= s¹m¹nyataå=generally. RØpa-bhedena=vibhakti- rØp¹ª¹‚ bhedena=through the difference of the case forms of the nouns. S¹hacary¹t=saha-pahit¹n¹‚ ¶abd¹n¹‚ sambandh¹t= through the relation of the words set in the neighborhood. Kutra-cir =kva-cit = somewhere. Tad-vi¶¬a-vidheå= tasya li¡gasya vi¶e¬a-vidh¹n¹t= through the special mention of the particular gender. Str»-pu‚-napu‚sakam v¹