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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 14 / 48

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118

Master Sanskrit Easily

jñeyam = one should know about whether the noun is feminine, mas- culine or neuter. For instance:

Svar-avyaya‚ svarga-n¹ka-tridiva-trida¶¹lay¹å / Suraloko dyau-divau dve striy¹‚ kl»be trivi¬­apam // Svar iti avyayam = svar is an indeclinable. Svarga, n¹ka, tridiva, trida¶¹laya, and sura-loka, these five words are masculine. Dyau and div are feminine, and trivi¬­apam is neuter. All these words are the synonyms meaning ‘heaven’.

In Sanskrit, the feminine nouns are generally found to be ¹- k¹r¹nta, »-k¹r¹nta or Ø-k¹r¹nta, as for instance b¹l¹ = girl, nad» = river, vadhØ = wife. The Å-k¹r¹nta nouns may be masculine, feminine or neuter, e.g., nÅ = man, pitÅ= father, kartÅ=doer, agent, bhr¹tÅ=brother, devÅ =husband’s younger brother, naptÅ=nephew, etc., are masculine, m¹tÅ = mother, svasÅ = sister, nan¹ndÅ= husband’s sister, duhitÅ= daughter, etc., are feminine. KartÅ and others when used as adjectives to neuter nouns are to be declined in neuter.

Now, let us understand from the point of view of gra- mmatical analysis: When the base of an a-k¹r¹nta masculine noun is converted into ¹-k¹r¹nta or »-k¹r¹nta, or by adding the termina- tion ¹n» to it, it becomes a feminine noun, as for instance: aja > aj¹, a¶va >a¶v¹, ¹rya > ¹ry¹, ¹tmaja > ¹tmaj¹, k¹raka > k¹rak¹, kurv¹ªa > kurv¹ª¹, gandharva > gandharv¹, cinv¹na > cinv¹n¹, j¹yam¹na > j¹ya- m¹n¹, tanaya > tanay¹, d¹raka > d¹rik¹, b¹la > b¹l¹, mahattara > mahattar¹, mahattama > mahattam¹, vatsa > vats¹, sevaka > sevik¹ /

kumbhak¹ra > kumbhak¹r», gopa > gop», Gaura > gaur», taruªa > taruª», > deva > dev», dØta >dØt», nartaka > nartak», br¹hmaªa > br¹hmaª», yavana > yavan», yuvan > yuvat», r¹jan > r¹jñ»; indra > indr¹ª», bhava > bhav¹n», m¹tula > m¹tul¹n», rudra > rudr¹ª».

Some times there is found a slight difference in the meaning, when two different terminations for the feminine gender are affixed

Lesson 13

123

LESSON 13 (Trayoda¶aå p¹­haå)

Case

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Nom.

KartÅ

kartŪ»

kartŪi

The forms of the noun KartÅ (Neu.) in the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative are declined as follows:

Voc.

KartÅ

kartŪ»

kartŪi

Acc.

KartÅ

kartŪ»

kartŪI

Moreover, the optional Singular forms with the ªa-k¹ra in them are found in the Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive and Locative, as kartr¹ / kartŪ¹ (Instr.), kartre / kartŪe (Dat.), kartuå, kartŪaå (Abl. Gen./ katari / kartŪI (Loc.), and also kartroå / kartŪoå (Gen. Loc. Du.).

Now read aloud the following verses and the paragraph: Upakartu‚ priya‚ vaktu‚ kartu‚ sneham akÅtrima‚ / Sajjan¹¹‚ svabh¹vo ‘ya‚ kenenduå ¶i¶ir»kÅtaå // Sajjan¹n¹m = of good persons. Ayam= this very. Svabh¹vaå= nature. Upakartum= upak¹ra‚ kartu‚ = of obliging, doing good. Priyam =lovingly, sweetly. Vaktum = of speaking. Sneham = love affection. A-kÅtrimam= natural, not artificial. Kena= by whom? Induå= the Moon. ˜i¶ir»kÅtaå = ¶italaå kÅtaå = has been made cool.

N¹¶ayitum eva n»caå para-k¹rya‚ vetti na pras¹dhayitum / P¹tayitum eva ¶aktir v¹yor vÅk¬a‚ na connetum // N»caå=evil person. Para-k¹ryam= parasya k¹ryam = works of others. N¹¶ayitum=n¹¶a‚ kartum=of destroying. Eva=only. Vetti=j¹n¹ti= knows. Pras¹dhayitum=praka¬eªa saphala‚ kart‚= to make fully successful. V¹yoå=pavanasya= of the wind. ˜aktiå=s¹marthyam = power. VÅk¬¹n =p¹dap¹n=tarØn= trees. P¹tayitum=patana‚ k¹rayitum=to fell down, cause to fall. Eva=only, merely. Unnetum= Ørdhv¹n kartum=to raise up, make erect, lift up.

Coalescence: P¹tayitum+eva/N¹¶ayitum+eva / P¹tayitum+ eva (-m+e-=me)/ ˜aktiå+v¹yoå (-å+v-=-rv-)/ V¹yoå+vÅk¬am (-å+ v=-rv-/ Ca+unnetum (-a+u-=-o-).

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