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vadhØbhy¹ vadhØbhyaå vadhØbhy¹
Now, let us understand: On comparison of the forms of these two nouns, we note that while there is a visarga (:) at the end of the form of vadhØ in the Nom. Sing,, it is not to be found in the corresponding form of the word nadi. Then, whereever in the forms of nad» there is the change of -» by –y-, there is a change of –Ø by –v- in the corresponding forms of vadhØ. In other respects, the forms of both these words are just similar, as for instance, the shortening of the final long vowel in Voc. Sing., viz., nadi/vadhu, similar forms in Nom. Voc. and Acc. Dual, viz., nadyau/vadhvau, a visarga (:) at the end in Acc. Pl., viz., nad»å/vadhØå. In Instr. Dat. Abl., Gen., and Loc. Sing., the
respective terminations –¹
, -ai, -¹å, -¹å, and
¹m are suffixed, e.g.
vadhØ+ai=vadhvai/ nad»+¹å=nady¹å, vadhØ+¹å = vadhv¹å, again nad»+¹å=nady¹å, vadhØ+¹å = vadhv¹å, nad»+ ¹m= nady¹m, vadhØ+¹m=vadhv¹m. In Gen. Pl. there as an additionof the num-¹gama (-n-) before the termination -¹m, viz., nad»+n-¹m= nad»n¹m, vadhØ+n- ¹m= vadhØn¹m. Keeping these similarities in view, P¹ªini has used in his system the term Nad» as a sign for the feminine nouns ending in -» and –Ø.
The declension of the »-k¹r¹nta feminine nouns, like dev», kaly¹ª», brahm¹ª», indr¹ª», ¶arv¹ª», mÅ©¹n», bhav¹n», sakh», str», being of the Nad» type, follows that of the noun nad» as shown above, e.g.: dev», kaly¹ª», bhav¹n», etc., in Nom. Sing.; devyau, kaly¹ªyau, bhav¹nyau, etc., in Nom. Voc., and Acc. Du. ; dev»å, kaly¹ª»å, bhav¹n»å, etc., in Acc. Pl., devy¹, kaly¹ªy¹, bhav¹ny¹, etc., in Instr. Sing.; devyai, kaly¹ªyai, bhav¹nyai, etc., in Dat. Sing.; devy¹å, kaly¹ªy¹å, bhav¹ny¹å, etc., in Abl. and Gen. Sing.; dev»n¹m, kaly¹ª»n¹m, bhav¹n»n¹m, etc., in Gen. Pl.; and devy¹m, kaly¹ªy¹m, bhav¹n¹m, etc., in Loc. Sing.
But, just as in the caseof the Ø-k¹r¹nta feminine noun vadhu, there occurs a visarga (:) at the end in Nom. Sing. form, it also occurs
in the case of the similar feminine nouns, like tantr» (=lute), tar» (=boat), lak¬m» (=goddess of prosperity), dh» (=intelli- gence), pradh» (=highly intelligent woman), hr» (=bashfulness), ¶r» (=glory, goddess of wealth). Thus, tantr»å, tar»å. Lak¬m»å, dh»å, pradh»å, hrå», ¶r»å, in Nom. Sing., and Acc. Pl. Here, from the P¹ªinian point of view, the final visarga (:) is there since, there is the absence of the elision (lop¹bh¹va) of the termination su (=s) of the Nom. Sing., while it is elided in the Nom.Sing forms in the case of the feminine nouns like nad» and others similar to it.
So far as the forms of others Cases are concerned, those of the »-k¹r¹nta feminine nouns shown in the above paragraph, they bear similarity with the corresponding forms of the noun nad». For instance, tantr»å (=to the lutes), tar»å (=to the boats), lak¬m»å, hr»å, ¶r»å, etc., in Acc. Pl. But in the case of pradh», the form pradhyaå is popular in usage. In Instr. Sin. While the forms are tantry¹, tary¹. lak¬my¹. pradhy¹ are popular, those of others are different, like dhiy¹, hriy¹. ¶riy¹, su-dhiy¹ in Instr. Sing.., tantryai, taryai, lak¬myai, pradhyai in Dat. Sing. But, the forms of dh», hr» str», the forms dhiyai, hriyai, striyai are popular. Similarly, while in the Abl. and gen. Sing., the forms of the former nouns as tantryai, taryai, lak¬myai, pradhyai, are popular, the forms of the latter nouns as dhiy¹å, ¶riy¹å, ¶riy¹å, striy¹å are popular in Abl. and Gen. Sing. While, the forms in the Loc. Sing. of the former nouns, as tantry¹m, tary¹m, lak¬my¹m, pradhy¹m are popular, those of the latter nouns, as dhiy¹m, or dhiyi, hriy¹m or hriyi, ¶riy¹m or ¶riyi, striy¹m or striyi are popular. These are the exceptions, which should be carefully noted, so as to avoid confusion.
Now, compare and contrast the following forms in the declension of the two Å-k¹r¹nta nouns, pitÅ (m.) and m¹tÅ (f.):
PitÅ (m.) = father
M¹tÅ (f.)= mother