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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 17 / 48

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Master Sanskrit Easily

In the declension of the cardinal numbers from pañcan (=five) to nava-da¶an (=nineteen), the forms remain the same in the respective cases in Mas. Fem. and Neu., e.g. in Nom., Voc., Acc., pañca, in Intr. Pañcabhiå, in Dat. Abl., pañcabhyaå, in Gen. pañc¹n¹m, in Loc. pañcasu. Similarly, of ¬a¬ (=six) ¬a©bhiå, ¬a©bhyaå, ¬aªª¹m (©+n= ªª), ¬a­su/ ¬a­tsu (©+s=­s/­ts); of saptan (=seven) saptabhiå, saptabyaå, sapt¹n¹m, saptasu; of a¬­an (=eight) a¬­abhiå/a¬­¹bhiå, a¬­abhyaå/ a¬­¹bhyaå / a¬­¹n¹m/ a¬­asu/ a¬­¹su; of navan (=nine) navabhiå, navabhyaå, nav¹n¹m, navasu.

The Case forms of the i-k¹r¹nta collective cardinal numbers like vi‚¬atii (=twenty), ¬a¬­I(=sixty), sapatati (=seventy), a¬»ti (=eighty) and navati (=ninety), are declined like the forms of the i- k¹r¹nta Feminine nouns like mati, e.g., ¬a¬­iå ¬a¬­im, ¬a¬­ty¹, ¬a¬­aye/ ¬a¬­yai, ¬a¬­y¹å, ¬a¬­au/¬a¬­y¹m. And, those of the ta-k¹r¹nta nouns like tri‚¬at, catv¹ri‚¬at and pañc¹¬at are declined like the ta-k¹r¹nta nouns marut (M.), e.g., pañc¹¶at, pañc¹¶at¹, pañc¹¶ate, pañc¹¶ataå, pañc¹¶ati.

The ordinal number in Sanskrit are: in Mas. and Neu. prathama/ agrima/¹dima (=first), in Fem. pratham¹/ agrim¹/ ¹dim¹ (=first); in Mas. and Neu. dvit»ya (=third), in Fem. dvit»y¹ (=third); in Mas. and Neu. caturtha/turya/tur»ya (=fourth), in Fem. caturth» /tury¹/tur»y¹. The ordinal numbers, for the fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth, are derived from the cardinals pañcan, saptan, a¬­an, navan and da¬an by suffixing the termination –ma, but the final consonant n in them is deleted. Thus, pañcama (M., N.), pañcam» (F.), sapatama (M., N.), saptam» (F.), a¬­ama (M., N.), a¬­am», navama (M., N.), da¶ama (M.,

  • N.

    =tenth), da¶am» (F. =tenth), ek¹da¶a (M., N. =eleventh) ek¹da¶»

  • (F.

    =eleventh), a¬­¹da¶a (M., N. =eighteenth), a¬­¹da¶» (F.

=eighteenth). For converting the ordinal numbers, from vi‚¶ati to nava- vi‚¶ati, into the ordinals their final –ti is dropped, or the terminations

  • tama (M.) /-tami (F.) are suffixed to them, e.g., vi‚¶a / vi‚¶atitama

    • (M.

      = twentieth), vi‚¶» / vi‚¶atitam» (F.twentieth). For converting the

ordinal numbers from tri‚¶at to nava-pañc¹¶at into the ordinals, their final –t is dripped and the terminations –tama (M.) /-tami (F.) are suffixed to them, e.g., dv¹tri‚¶a/dv¹tri‚¶attama (M., N.=thirty- second), dv¹tri‚¶»/ dv¹tri‚¶attam» (f.=thirty-second).

Lesson 13

129

(Naraå) k¹ma‚= v¹ñch¹å (=desire), jitv¹=vijaya‚ pr¹pya (=having conquered), sukh» (=sukha-yuktaå (= happy) bhavet / (Janaå) krodha‚= kopa‚(=anger) hitv¹ nir¹b¹dhaå (= nirgat¹å b¹dh¹å yasya saå (=one devoid of troubles) bhavet / (M¹navana) tŬª¹‚ =lips¹‚ (=yearning) jitv¹ na tapyate = dukh» na karoti or bhavati= (= does not cause, suffer, pain).

Verbal Form: Tapyate= Pres. 3rd Per. Sing. of the root tap (4 ¸. ‘to injure, cause pain’).

A-kÅtv¹ para-sant¹pam a-gatv¹ khala-mandiram / An-ulla¡ghya sat¹‚ m¹rga‚ yat svalpam api tad bahu // Para-sant¹pa‚ =parasya kÅte duåkha‚ (= unhappiness for others), a-kÅtv¹ = na utp¹dya (=having not generated, done), yat = yad vastu (=whatever thing), svalpam = sutar¹m stokam (=very less), pr¹pyate = labhyate (=is obtained), tat bahu =adhikam (=very much), mantavyam / Khala-mandiram = du¬­¹n¹‚ gÅham (= the place of the wicked ones. A-gatv¹ = gamana‚ na kÅtv¹ (=not having gone to) / Sat¹m =sajjan¹n¹m (of the good people, gentlemen), m¹rgam =panth¹nam (=the way, manner), an-ulla¡ghya = ulla¡ghana‚ na kÅrtv¹ (=not having transgressed) /

In this verse the idea expressed by the phrase ‘yat svalpam api vastu pr¹pyate tad bahu mantavyam’ is implied with all the phrases, viz., ‘para-sant¹pam a-kÅtv¹’, ‘khala-mandiram a-gatv¹’, and ‘sat¹‚ m¹rgam an-ulla¡ghya’, so that by repeating it with all of them we can formulate three independent sentences. Such a syntactical technique is often utilized in many other Sanskrit verses for verbal economy.

Verbal forms: KÅtv¹ = Gerund derived from the verbal root (8 U. ‘to do, perform, cause, generate). Gatv¹ = Gerund derived from the verbal root gam (1 P. > gacch, ‘to go’). Ulla¡ghya= Gerund derived from the verbal root ut+la¡gh (1 P. ‘to transgress’).

Kude¶am ¹s¹dya kuto ‘rtha-sañjayaå

Kuputram ¹s¹dya kuto jal¹ñjaliå / Kugehin»‚ pr¹pya gÅhe kutaå sukha‚

Ku¶i¬yam adhy¹payataå kuto ya¶aå //

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