Master Sanskrit Easily
Ku- = A pronominal prefixed to a base implying deterioration, depre- ciation, deficiency, want, littleness, hindrance, reproach, contempt, guilt. Ku-de¶am=du¬a‚ de¶am= pratikØla‚ sth¹nam = bad country, place. ¸s¹dya = pr¹pya = ¹gatya = having arrived at, reached. Kutaå = kena prak¹reªa =wherefrom, how, in what way. Artha-sañcayaå = dhanasya sa¡grahaå = earning of money, accumulation of wealth. Ku-putram = pratikØla‚ putram = du¬a‚ tanayam= unworthy son. Jal¹ñjaliå = jalasya añjaliå = oblation of water (offered to diseased ancestors). Ku- gehin»m = du¬¹‚ patn»m= pratikØl¹‚ bh¹ryam = bad wife, unworthy house-wife. Sukham = bhadram = kaly¹ªam = happiness, well-being. Ku-¶i¬yam = unworthy disciple, bad student. Adhy¹payataå = adhyayana‚ k¹rayataå = to one who teaches. Ya¶aå= k»rtiå= fame, reputation.
Coalescence: Kutaå+artha-sañcayaå / kutaå+jal¹ñjali / Kutaå +ya¶aå /
Word-forms: ¸s¹dya = Gerund derived from the verbal root ¹+sad (10 U. ‘to reach, to arrive at’. Pr¹pya = Gerund derived from the verbal root pra+¹p (5 P. ‘to pervade, obtain’). Adhy¹payataå= Gen. Sing. of the Pre. Participle adhy¹payat, derived from the verbal root adhi+¹p (5 P. ‘to teach’).
Prathama‚ ¶ira¶ chittv¹ pa¶c¹d a¡ga-cumbana‚, keya‚ vidagdhat¹? Prathama‚ gÅha‚ prajv¹lya pa¶c¹t ku¶alat¹-pra¶naå, keya‚ vidagdhat¹? PØrva‚ pr¹ªa-haraªa‚ pa¶c¹d anu¶ocana‚ keya‚ vidagdhat¹? Padbhy¹‚ m»n¹n mardayitv¹ mukhe veda- pahana‚, keya‚ vidagdhat¹?
Coalescence: ˜iraå+ chittv¹ (å+ch=¶+ch, change of å to ¶ ). Pa¶c¹t+anantaram (t+a= d+a, change of the hard consonant t to its soft equivaklent d of its class). K¹+iyam (¹+I=e)/
Vocabulary: Prathamam= ¹dau = at first, first of all. ˜iraå = mastakam= head. Chittv¹= chedana‚ kÅtv¹ = having severed, cut off. Pa¶c¹t = anantaram = tataå param = then, afterwards later on. A¡ga- cumbanam= a¡g¹n¹‚ cumbanam = kissing the limbs. K¹ = k»dÅ¶¹ = what sort of. Iyam=this. Vidagdhat¹=vidagdhasya bh¹vaå = cleverness,
LESSON 15 (Pañca-da¶aå p¹haå) For very big ten-fold cardinal numbers, like thousand and onwards, in Sanskrit, the famous Indian astronomer Bh¹skar¹c¹rya has given, in his mathematical work called L»l¹vat», the following numeral names: sahasram (=1,000), da¶a-sahasram or ayutam (=10,000), lak¬am or lak¬¹ (=1,00,000), prayutam (=10,00,000), koi (=1,00,00,000), arbudam (=10,00,00,000), kharva or kharvam
(=1,00,00,00,00,000), antyam (=10, 00,00,00,00,000), and par¹rdham (=1,00,00,00,00,00,000).
The cardinal numeral eka (=one) is normally used in the Singular number. But in some particular senses, it is used in Dual and Plural, too. As for instance, the usage of eke (=some people) is in use, along with the words like anye / apare (=others, other people), as in sentences like, Eke ¹huå ¹tm¹ n¹sti, anye to asti iti (=Some people say that there is no Self, while others say that it does exist). In the Dative, Ablative, and Locative, it is declined like a Pronoun in Masculine and Neuter, i.e., by the application of the terminations smai, sm¹t, sya, smin, as for instance ekasmai, ekasm¹t, ekasya, ekasmin, and in Feminine by that of the terminations syai, sy¹å, sy¹å, and sy¹m, as for instance ekasyai, ekasy¹å, ekasy¹å, ekasy¹m.
The cardinal numeral dvi (=two) is declined in the Dual Number only, as for instance, Nom. Du., dvau (M.), dve (F., N.), Instr., Dat., Abl. Du., dv¹bhy¹m (M., F., N.), Gen. Du., dvayoå (M., F., N.).
The cardinal numbers from tri (=three) to nava-navatiå (=ninety-nine) are declined in Plural only. Thus: of tri (=three), in Nom., Voice., Acc. Pl., trayaå (M.), tisraå (F.), tr»ªi (N.); in Instr. Pl. tribhiå (M., N.), tisÅbhiå (F.); in Dat., Abl., tribhyaå (M. N.), tisÅbhyaå (F.); in Gen. tray¹ª¹m (M., N.), tisÅª¹m (F.). The declension of the number catur (=four) is declined in Nom., Voc., as catv¹raå (M.), catasraå (F.) catv¹ri (N.), in Acc. as caturaå (M.), catasraå (F.), catv¹ri (N.), in Instr. caturbhiå (M., N.), catasÅbhi (F.).