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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 19 / 48





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Master Sanskrit Easily

In the case of the numbers involving navan (=nine), like nineteen, twenty-nine, etc., the tenfold numbers like da¶a, vi‚¶ati, etc., are ei- ther prefixed as such, as for instance nana-da¶an (=9+10 = 19), or the word ekona /ek¹nna is prefixed to the next tenfold to it, as for instance in ekona-vi‚s¶ati / ek¹nna-vi‚¶ati (=20 – 1 = 19).

Lesson 13


shrewdness. Prajv¹lya = prajv¹lana‚ kÅtv¹ = having set to fire, burnt. Ku¶ala-v¹rt¹pra¶naå = sv¹sthyasya v¹rt¹y¹å pra¶naå = inquiry about the news of well-being. Pr¹ªa-haraªam= pr¹ª¹n¹‚ haraªam= maraªam = ending life, death. Vidh¹ya=kÅtv¹ = having done, committed. Anu¶ocanam = pa¶c¹tt¹paå = repentance. Padbhy¹m = caraª¹- bhy¹m = by means of both the feet. M»n¹n = the fish. Mardayitv¹ = mardana‚ kÅtv¹ = having pounded down, crushed. Veda- pa­hanam = Ved¹n¹‚ p¹­haå = recitation of the Vedas.

Word-forms : Prathamam is an indeclinable. ˜iraå = Acc. Sing. of the noun ¶iras (Neu.). Chittv¹ = Gerund derived from the verbal root chid (7 U. ‘to cut, mow’). Pa¶c¹t is an indeclinable. Prajv¹lya = Gerund derived from the verbal root pra+jval (1 P. ‘to burn, glow’). Vidh¹ya = Gerund derived from the verbal root vi+dh¹ (3 U. ‘to do, perform, make). Mardayitv¹ = Gerund derived from the verbal root mÅd (9 P. ‘to press, crush, kill, rub off).

Now, note: In the above verses and the paragraph we find that the usages like , spŬ­v¹, dŬ­v¹, bhuktv¹, ghr¹tv¹, hitv¹, jitv¹, kÅtv¹, gatv¹, chittv¹, mardayitv¹ that are used in them end with the termination -tv¹. Since in the P¹ªinian system this termination is mentions as –ktv¹, the word ending with this termination is called a Ktv¹nta, i.e. a Gerund, which is an indeclinable word, and denotes an action that has preceded some other one that follows it. But, in the case of the verbal roots that have some Preposition attached to them, as in the case of the words like ¹s¹dya, anulla¡ghya, pr¹pya, prajv¹lya, vidh¹ya, we find that the termination –ya is suffixed, because the verbal root from which they are derived have the Prepositions like ¹-, an-, pra-, vi- prefixed to them. In the P¹ªinian system this termination is mentions as –lyap, and hence the Gerunds ending in this terminastion are called Lyabanta (lyap+anta; -p+a- =-b+a-=ba-).

When such Gerunds are used, we find two words denoting action, as for instance in ‘yaå ¶rutv¹ na gl¹yati saå jitendriyaå’, the word ¶rutv¹ (=having heard) and gl¹yati (=gets dejected) denote two different actions. Of them, since the first one has preceded the second

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