Master Sanskrit Easily
Now, note: Among the Neuter forms, only those of the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative Cases differ from those of the Masculine forms, while the rest of them are just similar. We should only remember this fact, so as to preclude the necessity of remembering the forms of the rest of the Cases separately.
Now, read aloud the following Sanskrit paragraphs, trying to grasp the meanings of the sentences therein: Nidr¹nte bhagavataå smaraªa‚, pr¹tar dev¹n¹m arcana‚,
s¹dhu-puru¬ebhyaå s praª¹maå. a vir¹maå, pram¹debhyo r v a s y o p a k ¹ r a å , ¶ u c i r v y a v a h ¹ r a å , s a t - p ¹ t r a - d ¹ n e r a t i å , d h a r m a - k¹rye¬u matir ityeva sat-puru¬¹ª¹‚ sthitiå /
In the above sentence, the words in the Nominative, Genitive and Locative are used. By joining the phrase ity eva (=thus verily), with other parts of this sentence we can formulate eight separate sentences, e.g., Nidr¹nte bhagavataå smaraªam ityeva sat- puru¬¹ª¹‚ sthitiå / Pr¹tar dev¹n¹m arcanam ityeva sat-puru¬¹ª¹‚ sthitiå /
smaraªa‚ kartavyam=should be remembered. Bhava-jalam=water of the (ocean in the form of the cycle of) births. Taraª»yam= should be crossed over (by swimming).
Geya‚ g»t¹-n¹ma-sahasra‚ dhyeya‚ ¶r»pati-rØpam ajasram / Neya‚ sajjana-sa¡ge citta‚ deya‚ d»na-jan¹ya ca vitta‚ // Vocabulary: Geyam= should be sung. G»t¹-n¹ma-sahasram = the Bhagavad-g»t¹ and the Vi¬ªu-sahasra-n¹ma. Dhyeyam= dhy¹ na‚ kartavyam= should be meditated upon. RØpam= the handsome form. Ajasram= constantly. Neyam = should be led to. Sa¡ge= in the vicinity. Cittam= mind. Deyam= d¹na‚ kartavyam= should be given, donated. D»na-jana=a poor person. Vittam=dhanam= money.
Coalescence: -rØpam+ajasram (m+a=ma). In the above verses, the usages, viz., gantavyam, sth¹- tavyam, vaktavyam, d¹tavyam, bhoktavyam, kartavyaå, haraª»yam, uccara- ª»yam, smaraª»yam, taraª»yam, geyam, dhyeyam, neyam and deyam, are the forms of the Potential Participle. They are derived from the Sanskrit verbal roots, gam, sth¹, vac, d¹, bhuj, kÅ, hÅ, ut+car, smÅ, tÅ, gai, dhyai, n», and d¹, respectively.
It should be noted that these forms denote the sense, like gacchet, ti¬het, ucy¹t, dey¹t, bhuñjet, kury¹t, haret, uccaret, smaret, t»ry¹t, gey¹t, dhy¹y¹t, n»y¹t, dey¹t, respectively, in the Potential Mood of the respective verbal roots. Here, in the above verses, since only the sense of the action is intended to be conveyed irrespective of any Person and Number, the form of the Potential Participle of the root are used. But, when the sense of the action denoted by the verbal root is to be conveyed with reference to particular Person and Number, the verbal forms in the Potential Mood, as shown above, are used.
Now. Let us understand the grammatical analysis of these verbal forms: Gantavyam= gam+tavya+am / (m+t=nt). Sth¹tavyam=sth¹+tavya+am / Here, the termination tavya of the potential Participle is applied to the root.
Since all these forms are supposed to be of Neuter Gender, the Case termination of the Nom. Sing. –am is suffixed to it, because it