Master Sanskrit Easily
one, the first is expressed through a Gerund ending in –tv¹ or –ya in accordance with the root used by itself or having a Preposition prefixed to it, instead of through a regular verb carrying terminations of the Person and Number concerned. Thus, since the Gerund shows the order of te two actions concerned, in popular Sanskrit parlance it is called the Sambandhaka-bhØta-kÅdanta or PØrva-k¹la-v¹caka-dh¹tu- s¹dhita-avyaya, i.e. an Indeclinale derived from a verbal root and denoting an action that has occurred in the past.
Let us see from the view-point of grammatical analysis: ˜ru+tv¹ / SpÅ¶+tv¹ = spÅ¬+v¹ ( ¶ > ¬ since preceded by r, and t > , because preceded by ¬)/ Similarly, dÅ¶+tv¹=dÅ¬+v¹ (¶>¬ and t>)/ Bhuj+tv¹ = bhuk+tv¹ (j > k, because j is followed by t)/ Ghr¹+tv¹ / H¹+tv¹= hi+tv¹ (-¹ > -i) / Ji+tv¹ / KÅ+tv¹ / Gam+ tv¹= ga+tv¹ (elision of the final m of the root) / Similarly, chid+tv¹ = chit+tv¹ (-d
-t) / Mad + tv¹ = mad+i+tv¹ (insertion of id¹gama after the root)/
Now, repeat aloud the above verses and the paragraph along with their paraphrases.
Read aloud the following verses and the sentences para- phrasing them: KeyØr¹ na vibhØ¬ayanti puru¬a‚ h¹r¹ na candrojjval¹ Na sn¹na‚ na vilepana‚na kusuma‚ n¹la¡kÅt¹ mØrdhaj¹å / V¹ªy ek¹ samala¡karoti puru¬a‚ y¹ sa‚skÅt¹ dh¹ryate K¬»yante khalu bhØ¬aª¹ni satata‚ v¹g-bhØ¬aªa‚ bhØ¬aªam //
KeyØr¹å puru¬a‚ na vibhØ¬ayanti / Candrojjval¹å h¹r¹å puru¬a‚ na vibhØ¬ayanti / Sn¹na‚ puru¬a‚ na vibhØ¬ayati / (Here, the verb is in singular as it follows the subject in singular.) / Kusuma‚ na ibhØ¬ayati / Ala¡kÅt¹å mØrdhaj¹å puru¬a‚ na vibhØ¬ayanti / Y¹ sa‚skÅt¹ v¹ª» puru¬eª dh¹ryate s¹ ek¹ eva puru¬a‚ samala¡karoti / BhØ¬aª¹ni khalu k¬»yante / Kin-tu v¹g-bhØ¬aªa‚ satata‚ bhØ¬aªam bhavati /
Coalescence: Keyur¹å+ na . Similarly, in h¹r¹å+na / ala¡Åt¹å
mØrdhaj¹å /(Here in all cases -¹å+n-= -¹ n-, by elision of å, because
å is preceded by ¹- and followed by a soft consonant).
of them) duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ sapta (=seven) priy¹ªi sapta te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ ¶apta (=six) priy¹ªi sapta te¬¹‚ (= of them) duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ ¬a (=six) priy¹ªi ¬a te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚
pañca (=five) priy¹ªi (=four) priy¹ªi carv¹ri
pañca te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ catv¹ri te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ tr»ªi (=six) priy¹ªi
tr»ªi te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ dve (=two) priye dve / Ye¬¹m eka‚ (=one) priyam eka‚ te¬¹‚ duåkham priyam n¹sti te¬¹‚ duåkham /
te¬¹‚ duåkhe / Ye¬¹m n¹sti
In the sentences of the above paragraph, the neuter forms of the numeral adjectives, like ¶atam, navati, a¶»ti, saptati, ¬a¬i, pañc¹¶at, catv¹ri‚¶at, tri‚¶at, vi‚¶ati, da¶an, navan, a¬an, saptan, ¬a¬, pañca, catur, tri, dvi, and eka, expressing the numbers one hundred, and other tenfold numbers up to ten and from nine to one, respectively in the reverse order are used.
The base forms of the numbers from eleven to nineteen are as follows, respectively: ek¹-da¶an, dv¹-da¶an, trayo-da¶an, catur- da¶an, pañca-da¶an, ¬o-©a¶an, sapta-da¶an, a¬¹-da¶an, nava-da¶an / ekona- vi‚¶ati / el¹nna-vi‚¶ati / Here we find that, for formulating the numbers from eleven to nineteen, the above-mentioned tenfold numbers are suffixed to the Sanskrit numerals, viz., da¶an, etc., expressing primary numbers, viz., eka, etc., thus deriving ek¹-da¶an, etc. It should be noted here that before prefixing the primary numbers to tenfold numbers like vi‚¶ati, tri‚¹sat, etc., the numbers dvi changes to dv¹, tri to trayaå, ¬a¬ to ¬a©, and a¬an to a¬¹, as for instance in dv¹-vi‚¶ati (=twenty- two), trayas-tri‚¶ati (=thirty-three), ¬a©-a¶»ti (eighty-six), a¬¹-‘¶»ti (=eighty-eight). In the case of the rest of the numbers, dvi > dv¹, tri > trayaå, and ¬a¬ > ¬a© (before the numbers, like a¶»ti, vi‚¶ati, navati, etc., beginning with vowel or soft consonants, like a, v, n, etc.), as for instance in, a¬¹-‘¶»ti (=eighty-eight), trayo-vi‚¶ati (=twenty-three), ¶a© > ¬aª-ªavati (=ninety-six), involving the retroflexion of © > ª, and n > ª. And, ¬a¬ > ¬a (before numbers like catur, pañca, etc., beginning with hard consonants, like c, p, etc.), as for instance in, ¬a-catv¹ri‚¶at (=forty-six), ¬a-pañc¹¶at (=fifty-six).