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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 21 / 48





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Master Sanskrit Easily

after the root invariably, and if the root is Vet optionally, , as in bhØ+i >bhav+i, but añj+i+sya / or añj+sy . Then, the termination sya > ¬ya, indicating the Future Tense, is applied to the root, e.g., a+ bhØ+i > a+bhav+i+sya. Then, the terminations of the Imperfect Past tense are suffixed as per the Person and Number intended to be conveyed. E.g., a+bhav+i +sya+t > abhavi¬yat /And, anu+a+bhØ > anv+a+ bhav+i+syat > anvabha- vi¬yat / Thus, in the Conditional verb-forms we find an admixture of the Past and Future Tense in it, in view of need of conveying the sense of the imagined past and future actions having the supposedly cause and effect relation. Here, in ay¹ci¬yat= a+y¹c+ i+sya+ am / the processes involved are the I©- ¹gama (i.e., insertion of the augment i ), the Murdhan¹de¶a (i.e., retroflexion of the sibilant s in sya >¬ in ¬ya), and the PØrvarØpa-ek¹de¶a, i.e., the merging of the subsequent vowel into the preceding one, a-+- a= -a- in ¬ya+am) / In a+d¹+sya+at there is no other change. In ak¹mayi¬yata, the changes are a+kam (10 ¸.>k¹m) +ay(the sign of





the A.

root-class)+i+sya >.¬ya+ata



(merging)>ta (termination of



>har+i+sya>¬ya+at >t / Akr»©i¬yat = a+kr»©+i+syat>¬ya+at>t / ¸hv¹syat=a+¹+hve >hv¹+syat / Apr¹psyat = a+pra+¹p+syat / Ajani¬yat=a+jan+i+ syat > ¬yat / A+pra+ka­+ay+i+syat >¬yat / Ap¹ryi¬yat =a+p¹r+ ay+i+sya >¬ya+at>t /

Now. Read aloud the following sentences, trying to grasp their meanings: Ye¬¹‚ (=whose) ¶ata‚ (=hundred) priy¹ªi ¶ata‚ te¬¹‚ (= of them) duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ navatiå (=ninety) priy¹ªi navatiå te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ a¶»tiå (=eighty) priy¹ªi a¶»tiå te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ sapattiå (=seventy) priy¹ªi saptatiå te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ (=whose) ¬a¬­iå (=sixty) priy¹ªi ¬a¬­iå te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ pañc¹¶at (=fifty) priy¹ªi pañc¹¶at te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ catv¹ri‚¶at (=forty) priy¹ªi catv¹ri‚¶at te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ tri‚¶at (=thirty) priy¹ªi tri‚¶at te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ vi‚¶atiå (=twenty) priy¹ªi vi‚¶atiå te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ da¶a (=ten) priy¹ªi da¶a te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ (=whose) nava (=nine) priy¹ªi nava te¬¹‚ duåkh¹ni / Ye¬¹‚ a¬ta (=eight) priy¹ªi a¬­au te¬¹‚ (=

Lesson 13


Vocabulary: KeyØraå = b¹hu-bhجaªam = armlet, bracelets worn on the upper arm. Candrojjvalaå = Candravat ujjval¹å prak¹¶am¹n¹å = glistening like the Moon. Vilepanam = tvac¹y¹å rak¬aªa‚ kartum upayujyam¹n¹å lepana-pad¹rth¹å = ointments, the lotions etc., used for applying to the skin for protection from cold, etc.

W o r d - f o r m s : V i b h Ø ¬ a y a n t i = P r e . 3 r d P e r . P l u . o f t h e r o vi+bhج (10 U. ‘to adorn’). Samala¡karoti = Pre. 3rd Per. Plu. of the root sam+alam+kÅ (8 U. ‘to adorn’). Aka¡kÅt¹å= Nom. Pl. of the Past Pas. Par. ala¡kÅta (Mas.), derived from the root alam+kÅ (8 U.). o t D h ¹ r y a t e = P a s . P r e s . 3 r d P e r . S i n g . o f t h e r o o t d h Å ( 1 U . t o h o l d ) . K ¬ » y a n t e = P a s . P r e s . 3 r d P e r . P l . o f t h e r o o t k ¬ i ( 1 P . t o d e Sa‚skÅt¹= Nom. Sing. of the Past Pas. Par. sa‚skÅt¹ (Fem.) derived from the root sam+kÅ (8 U. ‘to adorn, polish’). Here, the final m in sam is changed to because followed by the consonant k, and s is inserted traditionally between the preposition and the root, thus sam + kÅ =sa‚+s+kÅ+ta+¹ (of Fem.). c a y ) .

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