Master Sanskrit Easily
LESSON 14 (Caturda¶aå p¹haå)
Daridrat¹ dh»ratay¹ vir¹jate Kuvastrat¹ ¶ubhratay¹ vir¹jate / Kadannat¹ co¬ªatay¹ vir¹jate KurØpat¹ ¶»latay¹ vir¹jate // Vocabulary: Daridrat¹ = daridrasya bh¹vaå = nirdhanat¹ = poverty / Dh»ratay¹ = dh»rasya bh¹vaå, tay¹ = dhairyeªa = due to fortitude. Ku-vastrat¹ = kutsita‚ vastra‚ ku-vastra‚, tasya bh¹vaå= bad dress. ˜ubhrat¹= ¶ubhrasya bh¹vaå, tay¹ = due to whiteness. Kad- annat¹ = kutsitam anna‚, tasya bh¹vaå = bad food. U¬ªat¹=u¬ªasya
bh¹vaå, tay¹=due to hotness.
KurØpat¹ = kutsita‚
bh¹vaå = ugliness. ˜ilatay¹ = ¶»lasya endowed with (good) character.
rØpa‚, due to
Word-forms: Dh»ratay¹ = Instr. Sing. of the abstract noun dh»rat¹ (Fem). ˜ubhratay¹ = Instr. Sing. of the abstract noun ¶ubhrat¹ (Fem.). U¬ªatay¹ = Instr. Sing. of the abstract noun u¬ªat¹ (Fem.). ˜ilatay¹ = Instr. Sing. of the abstract noun ¶»lat¹ (Fem).
Note: In this verse we find the use of the Instrumental Singular forms of the feminine ¹-k¹r¹nta abstract nouns.
In such words as daridrat¹, dh»rat¹, kuvastrat¹, ¶ubhrat¹, kadannat¹, u¬ªat¹, kurØpat¹ and ¶»lat¹ are derived from the adjectival nouns daridra, dh»ra, kuvastra, ¶ubhra, kadanna, u¬ªa, kurØpa and ¶»la, and the termination t¹ is suffixed to them to convert them to the feminine abstract nouns. The above adjectival nouns can be changed to the neuter abstract nouns by suffixing the termination -tvam also, as daridratvam, dh»ratvam, kuvastratvam, ¶ubhratvam, kadannatvam, u¬ªatvam, kurØpatvam and ¶»latvam. Both the types of the abstract nouns are to found in the Sanskrit usage. These termination used for deriving the abstract nouns from the simple nouns are included under the type called Taddhita-pratyayaå. Taddhitaå = tebhyaå hit¹å / They are useful
ad¹syat (=God would have given me). Yadi s»t¹ k¹ñcana-mÅga‚ n¹k¹mayi¬yata (=If Sita would not have desired for the golden deer) r¹vaªas t¹‚ n¹hari¬yat (R¹vaªa would not have kidnapped her). Yadi r¹vaªaå s»t¹‚ n¹pahari¬yat (=If R¹vaªa would not have kidnapped S»t¹) r¹mas ta‚ n¹hani¬yat (=R¹ma would not have killed him). Yadi yudhi¬hiro dyØta‚ n¹kr»©i¬yat (=If Yudhi¬ira would not have played with dice) tad¹ p¹ª©av¹å vana‚ n¹gami¬yan (=then the P¹ª©avas would not have gone to the forest), mah¹bh¹rata-yuddha‚ ca n¹bhavi¬yat (=and the Mah¹bh¹rata War would not have taken place). Yadi kuntiå durv¹sasaå varad¹na‚ par»k¬itu‚ sØrya‚ n¹hv¹yi¬yat (=If Kunti had not invoked the Sun-god to test the boon of Durv¹s¹) tad¹ kaum¹rye eva karªa‚ putra-rØeªa n¹jani¬yat (=then she would not have given birth to Karªa as the son), p¹ª©avaiå saha ca karªasya vaira‚ n¹jani¬yat (=the enmity of Karªa with the P¹ª©avas would not have arisen). Yadi bh»¬maå r¹ja-sabh¹y¹‚ kaurav¹n prati svasya artha-d¹satva‚ n¹prakaayi¬yat (=If Bh»¬ma would not have declared in the royal assembly his monetary slavery to, i.e., economical depen- dence on, the Kauravas) tad¹ duå¶¹sanaå sabh¹sad¹n¹‚ samak¬a¬a‚ draupady¹¶ c»ra-haraªa‚ kartum n¹p¹rayi¬yat (=then Duå¶¹sana would not have been able to try snatching the garments of Draupad» in the assembly in front of the members of the assembly).
In the above sentences the verbal forms, viz., ay¹ci¬yam, ad¹syat, ak¹mayi¬yat, ahari¬yat, ap¹hari¬yat, ahani¬yat, akr»©i¬yat,
aprakaayi¬yat, expressing the
and ap¹rayi¬yat, are all the Conditional ones, cause-effect relation between the two imagined
actions. In the P¹ªinian the name of LÅ¡-lak¹ra.
Now, let us see from the point of view of grammatical analysis: In the Conditional verbal forms given above, we find that there an ad- ¹gama (i.e. the augment a), indicating the Past Tense, prefixed to the bare root, or between the preposition and the root if there is a preposition prefixed to a root, e.g., bhØ > a+bhØ / But anu+bhØ > anu+a+bhØ / Then, if the root is Set, the id-¹gama (i.e. the augment i ) is added