Master Sanskrit Easily
necessary). Ti¬hatu bhoå (=O! Please, let it stop). Smarati kila (=Oh! Does he remember)? Tath¹ kim-api n¹sti (= There is nothing of that sort). Katham asti bhav¹n (=How are you, gentleman)? M¹ vismaratu (=Don’t forget). Anyac ca (=And further, moreover). Tad-anantaram (=after that). T¹vad eva kila (=only that much)? Mah¹n santo¬aå (=Highly satisfied). Na tath¹ (=Not like that, not in that way, not thus). ¸m bhoå (=Oh! Alright, yes please).Evam eva (=like that only, granted). Ki‚ cirad dar¶anam (=why seen after a long time, why were you not seen for long)? Bhavanta‚ kutr¹pi dÅ¬av¹n (=Have seen you somewnere). Bhav¹n / bhavat» sammelane/ ¶ibire/ k¹ry¹laye/mah¹vidy¹laye/ granth¹g¹re ¹gatav¹n, ¹gatavat» v¹ (=Did you come to the conference/ camp/office/college/library)? Tarhi kutra m¹‚ dÅ¬av¹n/ dÅ¬avat» (=Then, where did you see me)? Tarhi tatra eva m¹‚ dÅ¬av¹n/ dÅ¬avat» (=Then, you saw me there itself)?
From the above sentences of general conversation, we come to know for sure that in day-to-day usage it is not necessary to use the subject, verb, and etc., in them! In many cases, they are taken for granted, or implied. Moreover, as in spoken English, the Sanskrit language too has its own special style, custom, fashion, which enables the speaker to express the special sense by the different tone, accent or emphasis on particular syllables or words in a sentence. And, in such cases, if one wants to translate them in another language, one has to be very careful to its special idiom.
In English we have conditional usages like ‘if this had been the case, ... it would have happened thus’. In such cases there is an involvement of the past action and the future one, though they have actually not happened at all. For expressing such a conditional sense, the forms utilized in Sanskrit are known as Hetu-hetumad-bh¹va (=the relation of cause and effect) or Kriy¹-‘tipapaty-artha (=the sense of an action being overtaken, i.e. to imagine an action on the basis of another one before they have actually happened).
Now, read aloud the following sentences: Yadi hi ay¹ci¬yam (=if indeed I had asked for), m¹m acyutaå
in various types of grammatical functions.
P¹ªini has affixed various other letters, as initial or middle or the final one, to these Taddhita terminations to indicate their various types of changes that occur when these terminations are applied. These letters do not form a part of the terminations, and since they are elided in the grammatical process on indicating the function connected with it. They are, therefore, called ‘it’ (=those who go away, i.e., they are only indicatory). It is customary in the P¹ªinian system to recognize these terminations on the basis of such it letters. Thus, in the termination hak is kit (=having a k which is it). The termination aª, is ªit (=having a ª which is it). The matup is pit (=having a p which is it). The vuñ is ñit ((=having a ñ which is it).
From the viewpoint of grammatical analysis, while applying these Taddhita terminations, we have to understand that when a
termination is ñit or ªit, the first vowel in the verbal root or the nominal base to which it applies is replaced by its vÅdhhi equivalent. For instance, in diti+ªya, where diti comprises the letters d-i-t-I, since the termination is ªit, the first vowel after d is replaced by its equivalent vÅddhi vowel
the last vowel of the
Thus, diti+ªya= d-ai-t-i+ya =
original nomi- nal d-ai-t+ya= daitya
base diti is elided. (=the demons, i.e.,
the ones who are the sons of diti). termination matup is pit, and it
Similarly, in begins with
r¹jan+matup, since the the letter m, the final
consonant n of the base r-¹-j-a-n r¹jan+matup=r¹ja+mat(>vat)= r¹javat.
Similarly, in the case of ¹tman+»ya, since the termination »ya, begins with a vowel », both the final consonant and the final vowel are elided, ¹-t-m-a-n +»ya=¹tm+»ya= ¹tm»ya (=that which belongs to the Self). In the case of lavaªa+hañ, since the termination hañ is both hit and ñit, it is replaced by ika, and the initial vowel a of the base lavaªa is replace by its equivalent vÅddhi vowel ¹, thus lavaªa+hañ =lavaªa>l¹vaªa+hañ>ika =l¹vaª (by elision of the final vowel) +ika= l¹vaªika (=dealing in salt, or charming).
The –yu in a termination is replaced by –ana, and the vu- in it is replaced by –aka. For instance, nanda+lyu = nand (by elision of the