Master Sanskrit Easily
final vowel a) +yu (by elision of the intial indicatory l) = nand + ana= nandana, and vasudeva + vuñ = v¹sudev (by elision of the final vowel a) + vu (by elision of the final indicatory ñ) = v¹sudeva+aka= v¹sudevaka.
The initial ph in the termination is replaced by ¹yan, ©h by eya, kh by »n, gh by »y, and ch by iy. Thus, nara+phak = n¹r + pha= n¹r+¹yan (placed before the final vowel)+a= n¹r¹yaªa (by changing n to ª by coalescence because preceded by r). Vinat¹+©hak = vainat+dha= Vainat+eya= vainateya / Kula+kha=kul+kh+a= kul
n+a= kul»na / Garga+cha+g¹rga+ch+a= g¹rga+ »y+a= g¹rgeya /
K¬atra+cha=k¬atr+ch+a=ka¬tr+»ya=k¬atriya / From the point of view of grammatical analysis this process would seem to be rather difficult. But, in order to facilitate easiness and simplicity, P¹ªini has given very short aphorisms sØtras) which could be esily memorized and would enhance the power of thinking, remembering and analyzing.
The Taddhita terminations have been classified by the grammarians in accordance with the sense to be denoted by them, as Apaty¹rtha, Matvarth»ya, Bh¹v¹rtha and Karm¹rtha, SamØh¹rtha, Sambhandh¹rtha and Vik¹r¹rthaka, Parim¹ª¹rthaka and Sa‚khy¹- nrtha, Hit¹rtha, Kriy¹-vi¶e¬aª¹rtha, ˜ai¬ika, and Prak»rªaka. We shall go into them later on in lesson 21st and others.
Now, read aloud the following simple sentences of day-to-day gentlemanly conversation: Hariå om! (=Hello! How do you do?) / Suprabh¹tam (=Good morning.) / ˜ubhar¹triå (= Good night.) / Namaste or Namaskaraå (=Salutation!) / K¬amyat¹m (= Beg your parden.) Cint¹ m¹ ‘stu (=Don’t worry. Does n’t matter). KÅpay¹ (= Please, If you don’t mind). ¸gamyat¹m(=Please! Come). Su-sv¹gatam =welcome!). Punar mil¹maå (=we shall meet again, see you again). ˜r»man (=Hello! gentleman!). M¹nye / ¸rye (= Respected / Gentle Lady). Bahu sam»c»nam (=very well).
Bhavataå (M.) /Bhavaty¹å (F.) n¹ma kim (What is your good
name)? Mama (=my) n¹ma / Aya‚ mama mitra‚ _______ n¹ma / E¬¹ (=this) mama sakh» (girl friend). Ete¬¹ (=friend) ‚ ________ vi¬aye(=about them) ¶rutav¹ aham (=I have heard).
Bhav¹n (M.) /Bhavat»(F.) ki‚ karoti (=what are you doing)? Aham adhy¹pakaå / adhy¹pik¹ (=I am a teacher) adhik¹r» (= officer.)/ cikitsakaå (=a physician, doctor) /tantrajñaå (=technician)/ gaªakaå (=accountant)/ ua¡kakaå (=typist) / nide¶akaå (=director) / pr¹dhy¹pakaå (=professor) / v¹cakiaå (=reader)/ vy¹khy¹t¹ (=lecturer)/ sa‚¶odhana-sah¹yakaå (=research assistant)/ granthap¹laå (=librarian)/ k¹ryakaraå (=peon) / asmi (=I am). Aha‚ (=I) vidy¹laye (=in a school) / k¹ry¹laye (= in the office) rugª¹laye (in a hospital) / yantr¹g¹re (=in a factory) / vitta-ko¶e (=in a bank/ treasury), ganaka-vibh¹ge (= in accounts department) / ¶a‚¬odhana- sa‚sth¹y¹m (=in a research institute) / mah¹vidy¹laye (=a college), vi¬vavidy¹laye (=in a university) / k¹rya‚ karomi (=am working).
Bhav¹n / bhavat» kasy¹‚ (= in which) kak¬y¹y¹‚ (= in the standard) pahati (=are studying) ? Aha‚ navana-kak¬y¹y¹‚ (=in the ninth standard) / vinayana-prathana-var¬e (=first year arts) / v¹ªijya- dvit»ya-var¬e (=in second year commerce)/ vijñ¹na-tÅt»ya-var¬e (=in third year science), anusn¹taka-varge (in post-graduate class)/ pah¹mi (=am studying).
Bhavataå / bhavaty¹å gr¹maå (=village, town) ki‚ ? Mama gr¹maå/ nagara‚ __________ iti n¹ma / Bhav¹n / bhavat» ku¶alaå /ku¶al¹ (=are in good health) Iti ¹¶¹se (I hope that) ? Bhavataå / bhavaty¹å gÅhe sarve ku¶alinaå kim (= Are all in good health in your house) ? Kaå vi¶e¬aå / Kaå sam¹c¹raå / K¹ v¹rt¹ (=What news)? Bhav¹n eva kathayatu (= Please you yourself say). Bhav¹n / bhavat» kutaå ¹gacchati (= Where do you come from)? Aha‚ ¶¹l¹taå (=From school)/ gÅhataå (=From house)/ vipaªitaå (=From the market), agacch¹mi (=Am coming). Bhav¹n / bhavat» kutra gacchati (=Where do you go)? Aha‚ k¹ry¹laya‚ gacch¹mi (=I am going to office). Yad bhavatu tad bhavatu (= Let whatever happens happen). Yad bhavet tat pa¶y¹maå (=We will see what happens). Jñ¹ta‚ v¹ (=Did you come to know)? Katham ¹s»t (=How were the things)? A¡g»kÅta‚ kila (=they say he has accepted after all). Kati apek¬it¹ni (How much is/ many are/ expected)? Adya eva (= today only)? Id¹n»m eva (=right now)? ¸gantavyam eva bhoå (=you have to come without fail). Tad- artha‚ v¹ (=Is it for him/ her)? Tat kim api m¹ ‘stu (=Nothing of that sort, please). Na dÅ¶yate (= Is not seen). Sam¹pta‚ v¹ (=Is it over)? Tath¹ ‘pi (=Even then). ¸va¬yaka‚ na ¹sÅt (=It was not