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# In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 26 / 48

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which practically means 9+70+600+5,000+20,000). In English this is expressed by speaking out as ‘nine plus seventy plus six hundred plus five thousand plus twenty-thousand, ar per the placement of the digits in the number from right to left.

In ancient times, there was a custom of mentioning, particularly to express the years, the number of the very well known things whose collective numbers were popularly understood by all, such as bhØmi, indu (=1) / bhuja, pak¬a, netra (=2), pura, loka, agni, guªa (=3)/ veda, samudra, yuga (=4)/ i¬u, bhØta, v¹yu, pr¹ªa (=5)/ a¡ga, rasa, Åtu (=6) Å¬I, parvata, a¶va (=7), vasu, diggaja, sarpa, n¹ga (=8) / graha, nidhi, ratna (=9)/ abhra, kha, ¶Ønya (=0).

In the ancient works on Mathematics, the various functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc., are expressed in the following manner: Pañca-da¶abhiå sa‚yojitesu pañcasu (=when five are added to fifteen) samav¹yaå (=the total) vi‚¶atiå sampadyate (= twenty is obtained.) / ¦o©a¶abhyaå viyojite¬u ¬a­su (=when six are subtracted from sixteen), ava¶e¬aå (=the remainder) da¶a bhavati (= becomes ten.) / Saptabhiå guªite¬ a¬­asu (=when seven is multiplied by eight) guªa-phala‚ (=multiple) ¬a­-pañc¹¶at bhavati (=becomes fifty-six.) / Navabhiå vibhakte¬u tri-saptati¬u (=when seventy-three are divided by nine) a¬­au bh¹ga-phala‚ (=dividend eight) ¬e¬aå ca ekaå pr¹pyate (=and the remainder one is obtained).

For expressing the function ‘so many times’, the following numerical adjectives are used in Sanskrit: sakÅt (=once), dviå (=twice), triå (=thrice), catuå (=four times, quadruple), pañca-kÅtvaå (=five times, fivefold), ¬a­-pañc¹¶at-kÅtvaå (=fifty-six times), ¶ata-kÅtvaå (=hundred times, hundred-fold). Here it should be noted that the word kÅtvaå’ applied here, and not ‘kÅtv¹’.

When an action is performed repeatedly, the word expressing time is used in the Genitive, as for instance in: Divasasya sakÅt (=once in a day) / Sapt¹hasya triå (=thrice in a week) / M¹sasya da¶a-kÅtvaå (=ten times in a month).

# Lesson 16

159

The declension of the pronoun adas in Mas. and Fem.:

Case Nom. Voc. . Acc. Instr. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

asau

amØ

am»

asau

amØ

amØå

-

-

-

-

-

-

amum

amØ

amØn

‘’

‘’

‘’

amu¬mai

‘’ am»bhyaå

amu¬m¹t

‘’ ‘’

amu¬yai

‘’ amØbhyaå

amu¬y¹å

‘’ ’’

amun¹

amØby¹m am»bhiå

amuy¹

amØbhy¹m amØbhiå

amu¬ya amu¬min

amuyoå am»¬¹m

‘’

am»¬u

‘’ amu¬y¹m

amuyoå amØ¬¹m

‘’

amu¬u

Looking to the above forms of adas (m.) with those of adas (f.) we find the main differences as follows: in Nom. Pl. am» (m.) – amØ (f.), in Acc. Pl. amØn (m.) – amØå (f.), in Instr. Sing. amun¹ (m.)

• amuy¹ (f.), in Dat. Sing. amu¬mai (m.) – amu¬yai, in Abl. Sing.

amu¬m¹t (m.) – amu¬y¹å (f.), Gen. Sing. amu¬ya (m.) – amu¬y¹å (f.), in Loc. Sing. amu¬min (m.) – amu¬y¹m; in Instr. Pl. am»bhiå (m.) – amØbhiå (f.), in Dat. and Abl. Pl. am»bhyaå (m.) – amØbhyaå (f.), in Gen. Pl. am»¬¹m (m.), Loc. Pl. am»¬u (m.) – amØ¬u (f.). This difference should be born in mind.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Nom.

idam

eme

im¹ni

amØ

amØni

Acc.

‘’

‘’

‘’

‘’

‘’

‘’

As regards the forms of idam and adas in Neuter, only the forms of Nom. and Acc. are different, while rest of them in all other Cases are similar to those of respective masculine ones:

# Idam (n.) = This (nearby)

Adas (n.) = This (more close by)

# Now, sing aloud rhythmically the following verses and read

aloud their explanations: Kastva‚ bhoå ni¶i ke¶avaå ¶irasijaiå ki

‚ n¹ma garv¹yase

Bhadre ¶aurir aha‚ guªaiå pitÅgataiå putrasya ki‚ gauravam / Cakr» candra-mukhi! prayacchasi nu me kuª©»‚ gha­»‚ dohinim Itha‚ gopa-vadhØbhir uttaratay¹ hr»ªo hariå p¹tu vaå // Asmin ¶loke gopy¹ saha kÅ¬ªasya vinoda-pØrªaå pra¶nottara- rØpaå sa‚v¹daå nirØpitah / (Gop» pÅcchati): Bhoå! Kaå tvam /(KÅ¬ªa

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