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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 27 / 48

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Idam astuu sannikŬ­a‚ sam»patara-varti caitado rØpam / Adasas tu viprakŬ­a‚ tad iti parok¬e vij¹n»y¹t //

SannikŬ­a‚ (=nearby, adjacent) vastu idamaå idam-sarva- n¹mnaå (=of the pronoun idam) rØpeªa nirdi¶yate (=is indicated); sam»patara-varti (=located very nearby) adhika-sam»pe vartam¹ne vastuni ca etadaå etad-sarvan¹mnaå rØpa‚ prayujyate(=is used); viprakŬ­a‚ (a distant) vastu adasaå adas-sarvan¹mnaå rØpeªa n nisdi¶yate / Parok¬e(=beyond the rangeof the eye-sight) vastuni tat- sarvan¹mnaå prayogaå kriyate; et¹ni sarvan¹m¹ni prathama-puru¬a- v¹cak¹ni santi //

Case

Sing.

Nom.

ayam

Voc. .

-

Acc.

imam

Instr.

anena

Dat.

asmai

Abl.

asm¹t

Gen.

asya

Loc.

asmin

Du.

Pl.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

imau

ime

iyam

ime

im¹å

-

-

-

-

-

imau

ime

im¹m

ime

im¹å

¹bhy¹m

ebhiå

anay¹

¹bhy¹m

¹bhiå

‘’

ebhyaå

asyai

‘’

¹bhyaå

‘’

‘’

asy¹å

‘’

’’

The declension of the pronoun idam in Mas. and Fem.:

Idam (M.) = this

Idam (F.) = this

anayoå

e¬¹m

‘’

e¬u

‘’

anayoå

¹s¹m

asy¹m

‘’

¹su

On comparing the mas. and fem., forms of the idam pronoun in different cases, we find the following difference: in the nom. and voc. sing. ayam (m.) – iyam (f.), in du. imau (m.)- ime (f.). in pl. ime

  • (m.

    ) – im¹å (f.); in acc. sing. imam (m.) – im¹m (f.), in du. imau (m.)

    • -

      ime (f.), in pl. im¹n (m.) – im¹å (f.); in the inst. Sing. anena (m.) –

anay¹ (f.), in pl. ebhiå (m.) - ¹bhiå (f.); in dat. sing. asmai (m.) – asyai

  • (f.

    ), in pl. ebhyaå (m.) - ¹bhyaå (f.); in abl. sing. asm¹t (m.) – asy¹å

  • (f.

    ); in gen. sing. asya (m.) – asy¹å (f.), in pl. e¬¹m (m. ) - ¹s¹m (f.);

and in loc. sing. asmin (m.) – asy¹m (f.), and in pl. e¬u (m.) - ¹su (f.). The rest of the forms, viz. inst. Dat. and abl, du. and dat. and abl. pl., as also gen. and loc. du. forms are just similar; and there are no prevalent forms in vocative.

Lesson 15

147

To express the sense of ‘in so many ways’ in Sanskrit, the termination –dh¹ is suffixed, as for instance in: dvidh¹ /dvedh¹ (=in two ways), tridh¹ / tredh¹ (=in three ways), caturdh¹ (=in four ways); similarly in pañcadh¹ (=in five ways), ¬a©dh¹ / ¬o©h¹ (=in six ways), saptadh¹, a¬­adh¹, navadh¹, and etc.

To convey the sense of a serial order, the termination -¶aå is suffixed, as for instance in: eka¶aå (=one by one), dvi¶aå (=two by two at a time), tri¶aå (=three by three at a time), pañca¶aå (=five by five at a time).

In order to express a collective number, the termination –taya or ka is used, as for instance in: dvitayam / dvayam (=pair); trayam / trikam (=group of three); catu¬­ayam / catu¬kam (= group of four); a¬­akam (=group of eight); navakam (=group of nine); da¶akam / da¶at (=group of ten); ¶atakam (=group of hundred).

Now, read aloud the following verses and their explanation, trying to grasp their meaning: Suputro varam eko ‘pi ki‚ kuputra-¶atair api / Eka¶ candro jad-d»paå nak¬atraiå ki‚ prayojanam // Ekaå api suputraå (=¶obhanaå putraå = sat-putraå) vara‚ (¶re¬­haå) bhavati / Kuputra-¶ataiå (=¶ata-sa¡khy¹kaiå kutsita-putraiå) api ki‚ prayojanam ? (=kim api prayojana‚ na bhavati ity arthaå /) Ekaå candraå jagad-d»paå (=d»pa-rØpeªa jagat prak¹- ¬ayati/) (Ataå a- sa¡khy¹kaiå ) nak¬atraiå ki‚ prayojanam ? (=kim api prayojana‚ na

asti ity arthaå /)

Udyamaå s¹hasa‚ dhairya

‚ buddhiå ¶aktiå par¹kramaå/

¦a© et¹ni ca yatra syus tatra devaå sah¹ya-kÅt // Udyamå (=udyogaå), s¹hasa‚ (=s¹hasikat¹), dhairya‚ (=dhirat¹), Buddhiå (=biddhimatt¹), ¶aktiå (=¶aktimatt¹), par¹kramaå (=par¹- krama-s»lat¹), ity et¹ni ¬a© vastØni (= ete ¬a© guª¹å) yatra syuå (= bhaveyuå \ = would exist), tatra (= tasy¹m avasth¹y¹‚) devaå

(=daiv»-¶aktiå =bh¹gya‚) sah¹ya-kÅt (=sah¹yak¹r» bhavati= sah¹ya‚ karoti) /

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