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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 29 / 48





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Master Sanskrit Easily

Pra+k¹¬ (1 ¸.) = To appear, shine, to become visible, to become evident or manifest – prak¹¶ate, prak¹¶yata / pr¹k¹¶ata, pr¹k¹¶yata / prak¹¶at¹m, prak¹¶yat¹m /prak¹¶eta, prak¹¶yeta / prak¹¶am¹na, prak¹¶yam¹na /prak¹¶itavya, prak¹¶an»ya, prak¹¶ya / prak¹¶ita / prak¹¶itum / prak¹¶ya / prak¹¶i¬yate / pr¹k¹¶i¬yata //

Kup (4 P.) = To be angry, excited, agitated, moved – kupyati, kupyate / akupyat, akupyata / kupyatu, kupyat¹m / kupyet, kupyeta / kupyat, kupyam¹na / kopitav ya, kopan»ya, kupya/ kupita / kopitum/ Kupitv¹ - kopitv¹ / kopi¬yati / akopi¬yat //

KŬ (1 P.) = To draw, pull, plough – kar¬ati, kŬyate / akar¬at, akŬyata / kar¬atu, kŬyat¹m / kar¬et, kŬyeta / kar¬at, kŬam¹ªa / kar¬itavya, kar¬aª»ya, kŬya / kŬ­a / kar¬­um - kra¬­um / kŬ­v¹ / kark¬yati - krak¬yati / akark¬yat - akrak¬yat //

KÅp – (6 ¸.) = To mourn, lament, implore – kÅpate, kÅpyate / akÅpata, akÅpyata / kÅpat¹m, kÅpyat¹m / kÅpeta, kÅpyeta / kÅpam¹na, kÅpyam¹na / kÅpitavya, kÅpaª»ya, kÅpya / kÅp¬yate / akÅpsyat // akÅpi¬yata – akarpsyata //

Kðp (1 ¸.) = To be able to, fit for – kalpate, kalpyate / akalpata, akalpyata / kalpat¹m, kalpyat¹m / kalpeta, kalpyeta / kalpam¹na, kalpyam¹na /kalpitavya – kalptavya, kalpan»ya / kalpya /kðpta / kalpitum – kalptum / kalpitv¹ - kalptv¹, (sa‚kalpya) / kalpi¬yate – kalpsyate / akalpi¬yata - alalpsyata //

Kr»© (1 P.) = To play, amuse oneself – kr»©ati, kr»©yate / akr»©at, akr»©yata / kr»©atu, kr»©yat¹m / kr»©et, kr»©yeta /kr»©itavya, kr»©an»ya, kr»©ya / kr»©ita /kr»©itum /kr»©itv¹ /kr»©I¬yati /akr»©I¬yat /

K¬am (1 ¸.) = To be patient or composed, suppress anger, endure, put up with, pardon, forgive anything – k¬amate, k¬amyate / ak¬amata, ak¬amyata /k¬ameta, k¬amyeta / k¬amam¹ªa, k¬amyam¹ªa /k¬amitavya - k¬antavya, k¬amya / k¬¹nta / k¬amitum - k¬antum / k¬amitv¹ - k¬¹ntv¹ / k¬ami¬yate - k¬a‚syate / ak¬ami¬yata - ak¬a‚syata //

K¬i (1 P.) = To destroy, corrupt, ruin, make an end of, kill, injure – k¬ayati, k¬»yate / ak¬ayat, ak¬»yata /k¬ayatu, k¬»yat¹m / k¬ayet, k¬»yeta / k¬ayat, k¬»yam¹ªa / k¬etavya, k¬ayya, k¬eya / k¬ita / k¬»ªa / k¬itv¹ /k¬e¬yti /ak¬e¬yat //

Khan (1 U.) = To dig - khanati- khanate, khanyate - kh¹yate / Akhanat- akhanata, akhanyata - akh¹yata / khanatu - khanat¹m /

Lesson 15


respect) ni¬phal¹ bhavati (=becomes fruitless, fails) / Kintu yadi tasya buddhau (in his intellect) yatha sv»k¹rya‚ bhavati (=becomes acceptable, convincing) tath¹ mitravad upadi¶ya (=having advised like a friend), sa‚sk¹r¹ (= good impressions, manners) yadi sa‚kr¹myante (=are transmitted), tad¹ s¹ ¶i¬aªa-praª¹l» (=system of teaching, educational system), saphal¹ bhavati (=becomes fruitful, succeeds).

Asmin ¶loke(=in this verse), vayo’nurØpa‚ (= as per the age) k»dŶa‚ parivartanam apek¬yate (=what sort of change is expected) tad bhagavat¹ manun¹ praka­»kÅtam (=has been revealed by Lord Manu) sva-racit¹y¹‚ manu-smÅtau (=in the Manu-smÅti composed by him)/

While speaking Sanskrit, there occurs by the very nature of its continuous pronunciation, certain changes in the final syllables of the preceding word and the initial ones of the immediately following word, due to their contiguous position. Such changes are called Sa‚hit¹(=putting together, juxtaposition) or Sandhi (=coalescence). In the Sixth Lesson above, we have learnt about the Ac-sandhi, i.e., coalescence of vowels. We shall now know more about the Visarga- sandhi, i.e., coalescence of the soft aspirate sound å (written as : after a devan¹gar» syallble in Sanskrit).

In the verses and the sentences of the prose passages given in the preceding lessons, we have learnt that the Visarga remains in tact if it is immediately preceded by the syllables ka, kha, pa, pha, or it occurs at the end of a sentence, as in: KŬakaå kŬati (=A farmer tills)/ Coraå khanati (=A thief digs)/ B¹laå pa¶yati (=A boy sees)/ Yatnaå phalati (=An effort succeeds)/

But, in situations other than these, the Visarga undergoes different changes; some times it is replaced by –u, sometimes by r, or - or –s, and sometimes it is just elided or dropped. The following rules give details about these situations: (1) If the Visarga is preceded immediately by the vowel a and then

followed immediately by an a, the Visarga becomes u, which coalesces with the preceding -a, thus both are replaced by o. Then, the following a- is elided, and in order to indicate the elision of the

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