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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 30 / 48

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150

Master Sanskrit Easily

a, a sign of Avagraha (looking like the Roman S in the Devan¹gar» characters, is put in its place. In English transliteration, this Avagraha is shown by the sign of an apostrophe: Thus, -a+å+a- = -a+u+a- = -o+’, as for instance in, R¹ma-å+a-sti = r¹ma-u+a-sti = ramo+a- sti= ramo+’sti =r¹mo’sti / Sa-å+ a-sti = sa-u+a-sti = so+a-sti = so+’sti = so’sti / E¬aå+asti = e¬-a+u+a-sti = e¬o+a-sti = e¬o+’sti = e¬o’sti /

  • (2)

    If Visarga is preceded immediately by an –a, and is followed immediately by a soft consonant, (i.e. by any of the third, fourth or the fifth consonants, such as g, gh, ¡, j, jh, ñ and so on, of the five classes, viz., ka-varga, ca-varga, etc., or by the semi-vowels y, r, l,

    • v)

      , the Visarga becomes u, which coalesces with the preceding -a, thus both are replaced by o, as for instance in: R¹m-a-å+ g-acchati = r¹ma-u+ g-acchati = r¹m-o+ g-acchati = r¹mo+ gacchati= r¹mo gacchati /

  • (3)

    If the Visarga is immediately preceded an –a, and is followed immediately by a vowel other than a (i.e. in situations like a+å+¹, a+å+I, a+å+», a+å+u, a+å+Ø, a+å+Å, etc.), the Visarga is dropped, as for instance in: R¹ma-å+¹-gacchati= r¹ma +¹-gacchati = r¹ma ¹gacchati / R¹maå + icchati = r¹ma+ icchati = r¹ma icchati / R¹ma-å+u-tti¬­hati= r¹ma+utti¬­hati= r¹ma utti¬­hati / r¹ma-å+Å-gvedam = r¹ma-å+Å-gvedam = r¹ma Ågvedam / In such a new resulting situation, it would seem that there is further scope for coalescence of, say, a+¹, a+i, a+u, a+Å, and etc. But, this is prohibited, so as to avoid the confusion about the original words.

  • (4)

    If the Visarga is immediately preceded an –¹, and is followed immediately by any vowel or a soft consonant, the Visarga is dropped, as for instance in: Jan-¹-å +»k¬ante = jan¹ »k¬ante / Jan- ¹-å+gaccganti= jan¹ gaccganti / Samavet-¹-å+y-uyutsavaå= samavet¹ yuyutsavaå /

  • (5)

    If the Visarga is immediately preceded by any vowel other than an

    • a, or ¹ and is followed immediately by any vowel (i.e., in situations like a+å+¹, a+å+I, a+å+», a+å+u, a+å+Ø, a+å+Å, etc.), the Visarga is replaced by a repha (i.e., the semivowel r) and it joins with the subsequent vowel, if any. For instance: Hariå+icchati= harir

Lesson 16

155

Then, sort these forms, and make new lists afresh of the similar forms of all the verbal roots in the list below, say, of all the Present Active forms, Present Passive forms, the Aorist forms, the Potential forms, and so on in the first list, and write down their meanings against each of them in English, e.g., A­ati = (He/She/ It) wanders; Arhati = (He/She / It) deserves, In another list all the Present Passive forms, e.g. A­yate =(It is being wandered by him/ her/it); Arhyate = =(It is being deserved by him/her/it). ¸­at = (He/She/It) wandered; ¸rhat = (He/She/It) deserved; ¸­yata = (It was being wandered by him/her/it); ¸rhyata = (It was being deserved by him/her/it); and so on.

(1 P.) = To wander – a­ati, a­yate / ¹­at, ¹­yata /a­atu. a­yat¹m / a­et, a­yeta / a­at, a­yam¹na / a­an»ya, a­itavya, ¹­ya /a­ita /a­itum / a­itv¹ /a­I¬yati / ¹­i¬yat //

Arh (1 P.) = To deserve – arhati, arhyate / ¹rhat, ¹rhyata / arhatu /¹rhyat¹m / arhet, /¹rhyata / arhat, arhyam¹na / arhya, arhaª»ya, arhitavya /arhita / arhitum /arhitv¹ /arhi¬yati / ¹rhi¬yat //

Av (1 P.) = To protect – avati, avyate /¹vat, ¹vyata / avatu, avyat¹m /avet, avyeta / avat, avyam¹na / avya, avan»ya, avitavya / avita, Øta, avitum / avitv¹ / avi¬yati / ¹vi¬yat //

½k¬ (1 ¸.) = To see - »k¬ate, »k¬yate / aik¬ata, aik¬yata / »k¬at¹m,

  • »

    k¬yat¹m / »k¬eta, »k¬yeta / »k¬am¹ªa, »k¬yam¹ªa / »k¬itavya, »k¬aª»ya,

  • »

    k¬ya / »k¬itum / »k¬itv¹ / »k¬i¬yate / a»k¬i¬yata //

Sam+Ådh (1 P.) = To prosper, please – samÅdhyati / samÅdhyate /sam¹rdhyat / sam¹rdhyata /samÅdhyatu, samÅdhyat¹m / samÅdhyeta / samÅdhyet, samÅdhyeta / samÅdhyat, samÅdhyam¹na / samardhitavya, samardhan»ya, samÅdhya / samÅddha / samardhitum / samÅdhya /

samardhi¬yati / sam¹rdhi¬yat //

Katth (1 ¸.) = To praise, boast – katthate, katthyate / akatthat, akatthyata / katthat¹m, katthyat¹m / kattham¹na, katthyam¹na / katthitavya, katthan»ya, katthya / katthita / katthitum / katthitv¹ /

katthi¬yate / akatthi¬yata // Kamp (1 ¸.) = To shake, tremble –

kampate, kampyate /

akampata, akampyata /kampat¹m, kampyat¹m /kampeta, kampyeta / Kampam¹na, kampyam¹na / kampitavya, kampan»ya, kampya / kampita / kampitum / kampitv¹ / kampi¬yate / a kampi¬yata //

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