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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 31 / 48

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154

Master Sanskrit Easily

LESSON 16 (¦o©a¬aå P¹­haå)

Rephaå svara-para‚ varªa‚ dŬ­v¹ ’’rohati tac-¶iraå / Puraå stita‚ yad¹ pa¶yad adhaå sa¡kramate svaram // Yad¹ rephaå ra-varªaå svara-paa‚ vyañjana-varªa‚ pa¶yati tad¹

ta-¶iraå tasya vyanñjana-varªasya ¶iraå mastakm lekhana-rekh¹y¹å upari ¹rohati / Yath¹ gaur»+atra=gaur-y-atra=gauryatra (this happens in the Devan¹gar», script, as in, + = + + = /, wherein the repha, i.e. the letter r, is converted into an inverted hook placed on the preceding letter; it does not happen in the Roman transliteration!). Atra reph¹t parataå ya-k¹raå / Ataå rephaå yak¹rasya ¶irasi ¹rØ©haå / Kintu yad¹ rephaå puraå sthita‚ svara‚ pa¶yati tad¹ adhaå sa¡kramate / Atra reph¹t parataå u-k¹raå / Ataå rephaå lekhana-

rekh¹y¹å adhaå sthitaå / Ata eva uktm-

Tumbik¹ tŪa-k¹¬­hañ ca taila‚ jala-sam¹game / ¿rdhva-sth¹na‚ sam¹y¹nti reph¹ª¹m »dŶ» gatiå // Yath¹ tumb»-phala‚ (=pumpkin) jale pativ¹ jalasy upari ¹gacchati, yath¹ tŪa‚ (-blade of grass) jale pativ¹ jalasy upari ¹gacchati, yath¹ k¹¬­ha‚ (=log of wood) jale pativ¹ jalasy upari ¹gacchati, yath¹ taila‚ (=oil) jale pativ¹ jalasy upari ¹gacchati, tathaiva rephasya gatiå gamana‚ pØrv¹k¬araya upari bhavati deva-n¹gar»-lipy¹m ity arthaå /

Sai¬a d¹¶arath» r¹maå sai¬a r¹j¹ yudhi¬­hiraå / Sai¬a karªo mah¹-ty¹g» sai¬a bh»mo mah¹-balaå // Atra, saå + e¬aå = sa + e¬a = sai¬a / Ubhayatra (=in both the cases) visargasya lopaå / Api ca tad-anantaram api vÅdhy-¹de¶aå / E¬¹ apav¹da-rØp¹ rØ©h¹ sandhiå / D¹¶arath» = da¶arathasya apatya‚ (=child) pum¹n (=male) / Mah¹-balaå = mah¹-balav¹n /

Now, follows a list of some verbal roots, along with their selected Third Person Singular forms, in both active and passive voice, of Present (la­), Aorist (la¡), Imperative (lo­), Potential (li¡), and of the bases of the Present Participle (¶atr-anta/ ¶¹naj-anta), the Potential Participle (tavy¹nta/ an»yar-anta/ yad-anta), the Past Passive Passive Participle (kt¹nta), the infinitive (tum-anta), the Common Future (lÅ­) and the Conditional (lÅ¡), by way of specimen.

Lesson 15

151

icchati / Hariå+jayati = harir + jayati =harir jayati Bahiå+gamanam= bahir+gamanam=bahir gamanam /

(6) If the Visarga is p immediately o preceded by any vowel and is

followed immediately by any hard consonant (i.e., the first and second consonants of the second, third and fourth groups, viz., c, ch, ­, ­h, t, th), the Visarga is replaced by the sibilant of the respective group (i.e., with c or ch, ¬ with ­ or ­h, and s with t or th). For instance: Bhi¬maå+ca=bhi¬ma¶+ca= bhi¬ma¶ ca / Mallin¹thaå+­ikate = mallin¹tha¬+­ikate = mallin¹tha¬ ­ikate / Tataå+tataå= tatas+tataå=tatas tataå /Similarly, when the Visarga is followed immediately by any of the three sibilants, it is replaced by the corresponding sibilant. For instance: Manaå+ ¶¹ntiå

=

mana¶+¶¹ntiå=

mana¶

¶¹ntiå

/

R¹maå+¬a¬­haå=

r¹ma¬+¬a¬­haå= r¹ma¬ ¬a¬­haå sukham = dehas sukham /

/

dehaå+sukham

=

dehas+

(7) The sibilanr s or r,

occurring at the end of an individual word or a

sentence,

is

replace

by

a

Visarga.

For

instance:Ya¶as

=ya¬aå

/

B¹las=b¹laå / Punar=punaå /

  • (8)

    The Visarga in the pronouns Saå and instance: Saå+vÅk¬aå=sa vÅk¬aå Saå+e¬aå+gacchati= sai¬a gacchati

  • 9)

    If the Visarga is followed immediately

E¬aå

is

generally

elided.

For

/ E¬aå+¶i¶uå= E¬a ¶i¶uå/ / r, the Visarga is elided, and

the short vowel preceding the Visarga is lengthened. For instance: Hariå+r¹jate=har» r¹jate/ Nis+ravaå= niå+ravaå= n»ravaå / Punaå+ramate =pun¹ ramate /

Now, read aloud the following verses and their explanations, keeping in view the Visarga-sandhi occurring in them:

K¹kaå kŬªaå pikaå kŬªaå ko bhedaå pika-k¹kayoå / Varanta-k¹le sampr¹pte k¹kaå pikaå k¹kaå pikaå // Atra sarve¬u pade¬u visarg¹t parataå (=after) ka-k¹ro v¹ pa-k¹ro v¹ vartate / Ataå sarvatra visargaå svarØpeªaiva yath¹-sthitaå eva vartate/ Na ca tasya u-k¹r¶de¶o, sa-k¹r¹de¶o, reph¹de¶o, lopo v¹ sañj¹taå /

K¹kaå kŬªa-varªaå / piko ‘pi kŬªa-varªaå / Eva‚ pika-k¹kau ev¹v

api

kŬªa-varªau / Atas

tayor

madhye bhedo

pr¹yo

na

spa¬­ao

dŬyaten / Kintu

yad¹

vasanta-k¹laå sam¹y¹ti

tad¹ kevalaå pika eva

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