Master Sanskrit Easily
LESSON 18 (A¬¹da¶aå P¹haå)
In order to introduce in briefly the P¹ªinian procedure in general, we had given the information about the adjuncts, i.e. the signs, of the ten verbal classes, and had shown as to which adjunct ultimately occurs in the concerned class.
Now, in order to understand the process in operation, let us see the Active Present Tense forms of the representative verbal roots of each of the classes, both in the Parasmai-pada and the ¸tmane-pada by
way of specimen. Where the verbal root
Ubhaya-pad, only the
Parasmai-pada or the ¸tmane-pada forms are shown in this lesson, as per the necessity.
Bhv¹di (=First) Class : To the roots of this class, the adjunct ¶ap intervenes before the terminations of the Present Tense (La) are applied to it. Since the adjunct ¶ap is pit (i.e. having the it-sign p), it replaces the final or the last-but-one vowel by its Guªa equivalent’ as for instance bhØ+¶ap+ti = bhØ+a+ti= bhav+a+ti = bhavati / Mud
+¶ap+te= mod +a+te=modate /
BhÅ (1 P.) = ‘to fill’. Parasmaipada
)= ‘to rejoice’ ¸. ¸tmanepada
Pr. Pu. bharati M. Pu. bharasi Ut. Pu. bhar¹mi
bharataå bharanti bharathaå bharatha bhar¹vaå bhar¹maå
modate modase mode
modete modante modethe modadhve mod¹vahe mod¹mahe
Ad¹di (= Second) Class: Although technically applied to the roots of this class, it is hence ultimately no adjunct seems to have been
practically elided, and applied at all, and the
to the root when the verbal forms comes into being. y¹+¶ap+ti = y¹+ti= y¹ti / ¹s+¶ap+te =¹s+te=¹ste /
arth¹t c¹lakaå kumbhak¹raå (= potter), mÅd-bh¹ª©¹n¹‚(=of the earthen utensils) nirm¹ª-k¹le (=at the time of moulding), bhØmau pÅthivy¹m ti¬hati uipavi¶ati /Yady api kumbhak¹rasya cakra‚ v¹yuvegena calate (=revolves), tath¹ pi ekam api pada‚ pada-m¹tram
et¹dÅ¶»n¹m jiñ¹subhi /
vartate, sa dÅ¬avyo vi¶e¬a-
In the Second Lesson above, we came to know about the division of the verbal roots into ten classes, their names, and the adjuncts (vikaraªa). From these classes, we noted that in the First (Bhv¹di), the Fourth (Div¹di), the Sixth (Tud¹di) class, and the Tenth (Cur¹di) class, the roots take the adjuncts, a, ya, a, and aya, and that certain modifications take place, before the intended final verbal form is ready for use in a sentence. The base formed after the application of the adjunct to the root, is called A¡ga. In the case of the above four classes, the A¡ga ends in a, i.e. it is a-k¹t¹nta. Since there occurs no internal modifications in the roots of these classes, they are known as A-vik¹r» (= non-modifying) classes.. For instance, bhØ+a= bho (by guªa)+a= bhava- ; div+ya=d»v (by lengthening) d»v+ya= d»vya- ; tud+a= tuda- ; cur+aya = Cor (by guªa)+aya = coraya- . All these are the verbal bases (a¡gas). Then, after applying the terminations of various Tenses or Moods, in various Persons and Numbers, the intended verbal forms come into being ready for use in sentences. For instance, bhava+ti= bhavati / d»vya+tu=d»vyatu / tuda+thaå=tudathaå /coraya+taå=corayataå /
In the case of the rest of the classes, viz., the Second (Ad¹di), Third (Juhoty¹di), Fifth (Sv¹di), Seventh (Rudh¹di), Eighth (Tan¹di) and Ninth (Kry¹di), the a¡ga never ends in a, i.e., it is not a-k¹r¹nta, and since due modifications take place in them, they are known as Vik¹r»-gaªas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 Cf. Subh¹¬ita-bh¹ª©¹g¹ra, edited by N¹r¹yaªa R¹ma ¸c¹rya “K¹vya-t»rtha”, enlarged edition, Nirªaya-s¹gara Press, Mumbai (India), 1952.