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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 35 / 48

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Master Sanskrit Easily

LESSON 18 (A¬­¹da¶aå P¹­haå)

In order to introduce in briefly the P¹ªinian procedure in general, we had given the information about the adjuncts, i.e. the signs, of the ten verbal classes, and had shown as to which adjunct ultimately occurs in the concerned class.

Now, in order to understand the process in operation, let us see the Active Present Tense forms of the representative verbal roots of each of the classes, both in the Parasmai-pada and the ¸tmane-pada by

way of specimen. Where the verbal root

is

Ubhaya-pad, only the

Parasmai-pada or the ¸tmane-pada forms are shown in this lesson, as per the necessity.

Bhv¹di (=First) Class : To the roots of this class, the adjunct ¶ap intervenes before the terminations of the Present Tense (La­) are applied to it. Since the adjunct ¶ap is pit (i.e. having the it-sign p), it replaces the final or the last-but-one vowel by its Guªa equivalent’ as for instance bhØ+¶ap+ti = bhØ+a+ti= bhav+a+ti = bhavati / Mud

+¶ap+te= mod +a+te=modate /

BhÅ (1 P.) = ‘to fill’. Parasmaipada

Mud (1

)= ‘to rejoice’ ¸. ¸tmanepada

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Sing.

Du.

Pl.

Pr. Pu. bharati M. Pu. bharasi Ut. Pu. bhar¹mi

bharataå bharanti bharathaå bharatha bhar¹vaå bhar¹maå

modate modase mode

modete modante modethe modadhve mod¹vahe mod¹mahe

Ad¹di (= Second) Class: Although technically applied to the roots of this class, it is hence ultimately no adjunct seems to have been

the

adjunct

¶ap

is

practically elided, and applied at all, and the

terminations

of

Tenses

and

Moods

seem

to

have

been

applied

directly

to the root when the verbal forms comes into being. y¹+¶ap+ti = y¹+ti= y¹ti / ¹s+¶ap+te =¹s+te=¹ste /

For

instance,

Lesson 16

163

arth¹t c¹lakaå kumbhak¹raå ­(= potter), mÅd-bh¹ª©¹n¹‚(=of the earthen utensils) nirm¹ª-k¹le (=at the time of moulding), bhØmau pÅthivy¹m ti¬­hati uipavi¶ati /Yady api kumbhak¹rasya cakra‚ v¹yuvegena calate (=revolves), tath¹ pi ekam api pada‚ pada-m¹tram

api

m¹rga‚

na

gacchati

/

‘Subh¹¬ita-bh¹ª©¹g¹ra’1-n¹mni

granthe

et¹dŶ»n¹m jiñ¹subhi /

prahelik¹n¹‚

sa¡graho

vartate, sa dŬ­avyo vi¶e¬a-

In the Second Lesson above, we came to know about the division of the verbal roots into ten classes, their names, and the adjuncts (vikaraªa). From these classes, we noted that in the First (Bhv¹di), the Fourth (Div¹di), the Sixth (Tud¹di) class, and the Tenth (Cur¹di) class, the roots take the adjuncts, a, ya, a, and aya, and that certain modifications take place, before the intended final verbal form is ready for use in a sentence. The base formed after the application of the adjunct to the root, is called A¡ga. In the case of the above four classes, the A¡ga ends in a, i.e. it is a-k¹t¹nta. Since there occurs no internal modifications in the roots of these classes, they are known as A-vik¹r» (= non-modifying) classes.. For instance, bhØ+a= bho (by guªa)+a= bhava- ; div+ya=d»v (by lengthening) d»v+ya= d»vya- ; tud+a= tuda- ; cur+aya = Cor (by guªa)+aya = coraya- . All these are the verbal bases (a¡gas). Then, after applying the terminations of various Tenses or Moods, in various Persons and Numbers, the intended verbal forms come into being ready for use in sentences. For instance, bhava+ti= bhavati / d»vya+tu=d»vyatu / tuda+thaå=tudathaå /coraya+taå=corayataå /

In the case of the rest of the classes, viz., the Second (Ad¹di), Third (Juhoty¹di), Fifth (Sv¹di), Seventh (Rudh¹di), Eighth (Tan¹di) and Ninth (Kry¹di), the a¡ga never ends in a, i.e., it is not a-k¹r¹nta, and since due modifications take place in them, they are known as Vik¹r»-gaªas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Cf. Subh¹¬ita-bh¹ª©¹g¹ra, edited by N¹r¹yaªa R¹ma ¸c¹rya “K¹vya-t»rtha”, enlarged edition, Nirªaya-s¹gara Press, Mumbai (India), 1952.

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