Master Sanskrit Easily
LESSON 17 (Sapta-da¶aå P¹haå)
The terminations applying in the modificatory classes, viz., 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th, of the Sanskrit verbal roots are divided into two sets: strong and weak. The base a¡ga), i.e., the root+class sign (=dh¹tu+vikaraªa), taking the strong (khara) terminations may be called the ‘strong base’, and that taking the weak (mÅdu) ones the ‘weak base’.
The Strong terminations are: The Singulars, viz. -tip (=-ti), - sip (=-si), -mip (= -mi), of all the Persons of the Present (La); the
ta, -s, -am, of the Imperfect (LÅ); the Third Person Singular, –tu, and
all the numbers, viz., -¹ni, -¹va, ¹ma of the First Person of the Imperative (Lo), in the Parasmai-pada, and all numbers, viz., -ai, ¹vahai, -¹mahai, of the First Person of the Imperative in the ¸tmane-pada. The rest are the Weak ones.
When the Strong terminations are applied, the short vowel occurring in the final (antya) or the last-but-one (up¹ntya) place of the base of the verbal root concerned is replace by its corresponding Guªa equivalent. For instance, su+nu+ti = sunu+ti = suno+ti= sunoti. Similarly, suno¬i, sunomi / asunot, asunoå, asunavam / sunav¹ni, sunav¹ma, sunav¹ma / sunavai, sunav¹vahai, sunav¹mahai / Since the rest of the terminations are Weak, no change takes place in the short vowel occurring in final or the last-but-one place of the concerned vebal base. For instance, sunu+vas = sunuvaå / Similarly, sunumaå / asunut¹m / sunut¹m / sunuy¹am, and etc.
Now, note: The forms of a Sanskrit verbal root can express the senses of various Tenses or Moods, such as, the Present (La), the Past Perfect (Li), the First or the Immediate Future (Lu), Second or Common Future (LÅ), the Vedic Subjunctive (Le), the Imperative (Lo), the Imperfect Past (La¡), the Potential (Li¡), the Aorist (Lu¡), and the Conditional (LÅ¡), in accordance with the terminations applied to it.
root, it undergoes the following process: In the case of the Active (kartari) construction, an adjunct ¶ap (=a) come in between the root and the termination of a Tense or a Mood. And, in the case of the Passive (karmaªi) construction, the adjunct Yak (=ya) comes in between. Then, in the case of different classes of the roots concerned, this adjunct ¶ap is replaced by the corresponding sub-adjunct known as the ¶ab-¹de¶a. Thus, in the case of the Div¹di class the sub-adjunct that replaces the ¶ap is ¶yan (=ya), in Sv¹di class it is ¶nu (=nu), inTud¹di class it is ¶a (=a), in Rudh¹di class it is ¶nam (=na), in Tan¹di class it is u, in kry¹di class it is ¶n¹ (=n¹), and in Cur¹di class it is ªic (=i). Thus, it should be born in heart that the terminations of the Tenses or Moods can operate only after the sub-adjuncts intervene. This is the P¹ªinian grammatical viewpoint.