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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 36 / 48





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Master Sanskrit Easily

LESSON 17 (Sapta-da¶aå P¹­haå)

The terminations applying in the modificatory classes, viz., 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th, of the Sanskrit verbal roots are divided into two sets: strong and weak. The base a¡ga), i.e., the root+class sign (=dh¹tu+vikaraªa), taking the strong (khara) terminations may be called the ‘strong base’, and that taking the weak (mÅdu) ones the ‘weak base’.

The Strong terminations are: The Singulars, viz. -tip (=-ti), - sip (=-si), -mip (= -mi), of all the Persons of the Present (La­); the

  • ta, -s, -am, of the Imperfect (LÅ­); the Third Person Singular, –tu, and

all the numbers, viz., -¹ni, -¹va, ¹ma of the First Person of the Imperative (Lo­), in the Parasmai-pada, and all numbers, viz., -ai, ¹vahai, -¹mahai, of the First Person of the Imperative in the ¸tmane-pada. The rest are the Weak ones.

When the Strong terminations are applied, the short vowel occurring in the final (antya) or the last-but-one (up¹ntya) place of the base of the verbal root concerned is replace by its corresponding Guªa equivalent. For instance, su+nu+ti = sunu+ti = suno+ti= sunoti. Similarly, suno¬i, sunomi / asunot, asunoå, asunavam / sunav¹ni, sunav¹ma, sunav¹ma / sunavai, sunav¹vahai, sunav¹mahai / Since the rest of the terminations are Weak, no change takes place in the short vowel occurring in final or the last-but-one place of the concerned vebal base. For instance, sunu+vas = sunuvaå / Similarly, sunumaå / asunut¹m / sunut¹m / sunuy¹am, and etc.

Now, note: The forms of a Sanskrit verbal root can express the senses of various Tenses or Moods, such as, the Present (La­), the Past Perfect (Li­), the First or the Immediate Future (Lu­), Second or Common Future (LÅ­), the Vedic Subjunctive (Le­), the Imperative (Lo­), the Imperfect Past (La¡), the Potential (Li¡), the Aorist (Lu¡), and the Conditional (LÅ¡), in accordance with the terminations applied to it.

Lesson 17


root, it undergoes the following process: In the case of the Active (kartari) construction, an adjunct ¶ap (=a) come in between the root and the termination of a Tense or a Mood. And, in the case of the Passive (karmaªi) construction, the adjunct Yak (=ya) comes in between. Then, in the case of different classes of the roots concerned, this adjunct ¶ap is replaced by the corresponding sub-adjunct known as the ¶ab-¹de¶a. Thus, in the case of the Div¹di class the sub-adjunct that replaces the ¶ap is ¶yan (=ya), in Sv¹di class it is ¶nu (=nu), inTud¹di class it is ¶a (=a), in Rudh¹di class it is ¶nam (=na), in Tan¹di class it is u, in kry¹di class it is ¶n¹ (=), and in Cur¹di class it is ªic (=i). Thus, it should be born in heart that the terminations of the Tenses or Moods can operate only after the sub-adjuncts intervene. This is the P¹ªinian grammatical viewpoint.

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