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In the case of the forms like, haraª»yam, ucc¹raª»yam, smara- - page 37 / 48





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lavaªa-rahit¹ rasavat», k¬am¹-rahita‚ tapaå, vega-h»no gho­akaå, na ¶obhate /

Madah»naå = madena h»naå, gajaå = hast», na ¶obhate, ¶obh¹‚ na dad¹ti / Lajj¹-h»n¹= lajjay¹ rahit¹, kula-vadhØ = ¶obhana-kulasya putra-vadhØ, na ¶obhate / N»ti-vikalaå = n»tau n»ti-vi¬aye, vikalaå =p¹lana‚ svaya‚ kartum, praj¹‚ ca tat k¹rayitum a-samarthaå, r¹j¹ na ¶obhate/ D¹na-h»naå = a-d¹t¹ = aud¹rya-rahitaå, n¹yakaå= net¹, na ¶obhate /Badhiraå = e©aå = ¶rotum a-samarthaå (=deaf) = satya‚ ¶rutv¹’pi tan na ¶rutam iti vartayan = avajñ¹‚ kurvan, mantr» = am¹tyaå, na ¶obhate/ Dur-vin»taå = dur-vinaya-yuktaå = a-vinay», ¶i¬yaå = vidy¹rth», na ¶obhate/ Dhvaja-rahita‚ = dhavena h»na‚, deva-kula‚ = dev¹laya‚, na ¶obhate/ ¸jya-rahita‚ = ¹jyena-h»na‚ = ghÅta vih»na‚, bhojana‚, na ¶obhate/ Lavaªa-rahit¹ = lavaªena vih»n¹, rasavat» = bhojana‚ (= cooked food), na ¶obhate/ K¬am¹-rahita‚ = kamay¹–vih»na‚, tapa¶-caraªa‚ = tapasy¹, na ¶obhate / Vega-rahitaå = vegena dh¹vitum a-samarthaå, gho­akaå = a¶vahaå, na ¶obhate /

Verbal roots: ¶ubh (1 ¸.) = ‘to beautify, embellish, adorn, beautify one’s self, look beautiful or handsome, shine, be bright or splendid’ - ¶obhate /

Vocabulary : (adj.) rahitaå = h»naå = vi-h»naå = ‘bereft of, without, not endowed with, not having’.

Now, note: Out of the ten classes of the verbal roots with which we familiarized ourselves, since the original form of the roots belonging to the Bhv¹di (=first), Div¹di (=fourth), Tud¹di (=sixth) and the Cur¹di (=tenth) classes gaªa) undergo some changes, for instance, gam > gacch, d¹ > yacch, p¹ > pub, sth¹ > ti¬­h, e¬ >icch, when the terminations of Tenses and Moods are applied to them, they are known as the Vik¹r» or the vik¹raka ones.

But, since the verbal roots of the rest of the six classes, viz., Ad¹di (=second), Juhoty¹di (=third), Sv¹di (fifth), Rudh¹di (=seventh), Tan¹di (=eighth) and Kry¹di (=ninth), do not undergo any change whatsoever, they are known as A-vik¹r» or A-vik¹raka, i.e. unchanging.

According to the grammatical point of view of P¹ªini, when for use in a sentence a form comes into being from an original verbal

Lesson 17


As per the P¹ªinian process, when a verb form is to be processed, first of all the la-k¹ra is applied to the root, and the la-k¹ra is replaced by the ti¡ terminations by way of an ¹de¶a. For instance, bhØ+la­. Now, as per the wish of the speaker to express the Present Tense, the la-k¹ra is replaced by the tip (= ti) termination by an ¹de¶a, thus bhØ+tip. The, since the intention is to use the Active Voice (kartari-prayoga), the adjunct (¹gama) ¶ap (=a) will come in, thus bhØ+¶ap+tip. Now, since both the ¶ap and tip are pit, the final vowel Ø of the root will be replaced by its Guªa equivalent o. Thus, bhØ+¶ap+tip= bhØ+a+ti= bho+a+ti= bh+av (because o+a=av) +a+ti=bhavati. In the P¹ªinian system, the verb-forms in which the four la-k¹ras, viz., the Present Tense (la­), the Imperative lo­), the Imperfect Past la¡) and the Potential li¡), are applied are known as the S¹rva-dh¹tuka ones, while the verb-forms in the rest of the la-k¹rasi are known as the ¸rdha-dh¹tuka ones.

Now, let us observe carefully and familiarize us with the Present Tense Third Person (prathama puru¬a) Singular forms of the verbal roots pa­h and in all the ten la-k¹ras, given by way of the specimens:

L a k ¹ r a

La­ Li­ Lu­ LÅ­ Let Lo­ La¡ Li¡ Lu¡ LÅ¡

Verb form pa­hati / pibati pap¹­ha / papau

pa­hit¹ / p¹t¹ pa­hi¬yati / p¹syati

  • -

    / p¹sati

pa­hatu / pibatu apa­hat / apibat pa­het / pibet ap¹­h»t / ap¹t apa­hi¬yat / ap¹syat

Herein, the Lak¹ras, viz., the Present (La­), the Imperative (Lo­), the Imperfect Past (La¡) and the Potential (Li¡), in which the root ‘p¹’ is replaced by the ¹de¶a pib’ by way of its ¹de¶a, they are of the S¹rvadh¹tuka type. The rest of the Lak¹ras, in which such a change has not occurred, are of the ¸rdhadh¹tuka type. The changes that occur in the verbal roots are shown in the brackets, as in, d¹ (yacch), p¹ (pib),

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